America becomes a global superpower; technology fuels a boom in the economy and the population. American pioneers conquer new frontiers, from the jet age to the space age, and run headlong into a new threat: Communism. 美国成为全球超级大国；技术燃料在经济繁荣和人口。美国的先锋征服新的领域，从喷气时代到太空时代，并陷入一个新的威胁：共产主义。
America stands tall.
Enemies vanquished, duty done on the battlefield.
And the greatest riches on earth at its feet:
more than half the world's oil,
two-thirds of its gold,
and the talents of 140 million people
ready to build modern America.
we are pioneers and trailblazers.
We fight for freedom.
We transform our dreams into the truth.
Our struggles will become a nation.
Post-war America will be turbulent, dynamic
More change and more progress
than in the last 400 years put together.
But some things haven't changed.
American courage, vision and determination
will always shape the nation.
The character of the country and its people forged in the past
drive the story forward.
The USA has ended World War II a superpower.
Its economy turbo charged.
Prime to construct the future.
The greatest generation is ready for peace time.
Their ambition knows no limits.
The average American family
already earns 15 times more than they do in Europe.
The USA hums with economic potential.
This was the greatest moment of
collective innovation in all of American history.
This country was giddy with the sense of accomplishment pride,
prospect for the future.
America's future looks bright.
Invention and innovation have always been the things
that bind its people together.
But America's sheer size threatens to pull it apart.
The landmass is 9 million square miles
and a road system isn't working.
You saw this vast wilderness in front of you
and what am I going to do with this?
The older highways,
the white shield highways would go across the country
and when it came to town
it became the main street of every town.
And there is always bottlenecks.
It's almost impossible to get around by car.
Only half of the roads are even pane.
Eisenhower, the new President has seen it for himself.
As a young soldier, he drove across the nation.
It took 62 days.
America has faced this problem before
how to move people and goods across its great expanse.
Each generation has come up with its own solution.
The rivers were America's first highways.
1811, the paddle steamer is launched,
taking goods upriver as well as down,
opening up the Mississippi to more trade.
The Erie Canal is America's next great conveyor belt of commerce.
1825, it links the Eastern sea board to the Great lakes.
Like the steamboats, it spawn cities along its route.
The canal transforms New York into a boom town
that quadruples in size.
Now it's time to get America's roads
working like the canals and rivers before them.
To get the country moving again.
And President Eisenhower makes it his mission to get the job done.
He started looking at
the development of this country in the 50s.
And you really saw the vision of
what the interstate highway system could do.
And it was amazing. It changed America.
There's a common theme
to the greatest innovations in American history,
and that is these were things that helped
people or goods or ideas travel about more freely.
人 商品 思想 更自由地流动
The Interstate Highway
becomes the biggest engineering project in American history.
It costs the nation $129 billion.
2.4 billion man hours of hard work.
And just like the railroads a century before
it's built with manual labor and sheer grit.
America's landscape has been shaped by trasportation.
The transcontinental railway
opened up half a billion acres of land and 8 new states.
200,000 miles of track huhn out of hostile terrain.
Faced with a mountain,
find an inventive way of blowing it up.
Nitroglycerin, black powder, dynamite.
硝化甘油 黑火药 炸药
The Interstate is the largest earth-moving project
in the history of the world.
One and a half million tons of explosives.
4.2 billion cubic yards of earth removed.
Enough to fill more than 8 million football stadiums.
We can build anything, we damn will, please,
we're going to go about it.
And it did change the country.
The Freeways, the Interstate Highway System.
It connected the cities in a way that no one had seen before
on a level no one had seen before.
Today there are 46,876 miles of Interstate Highways.
Enough to wrap nearly twice around the world.
And the journey that once took Eisenhower 62 grueling days
now it can be done in 4.
Those were the means can take to the roads.
There was nothing that could stop person
from being what they want,
going where they want,
doing what they want.
Freedom to travel where you want.
Freedom not to be stuck to where the trolley rails go.
A freedom and life-style that came with it
that really celebrate that sense
that the car was your ticket to personal freedom.
This is a country that will not accept being shackled,
perhaps because of our georgraphy and
we are able to expand the wheel and move where we wanna to.
Good roads need more cars.
Bigger, faster, better.
更大 更快 更好的汽车
2 million of them are manufactured in America.
And that's just the beginning.
It's the age of the automobile.
When I came to America,
the first thing I want to think about,
"How can I get hold of a car?"
I didn't have enough money.
so I shared with two friends by a jalopy.
I've crossed the country with that.
I had a love affair with the car from the very beginning
because this method of movement
that can enable you to see vast, expansive space
From as soon as they could get their hands on one,
Americans have always liked their cars.
Now the whole country has fallen in love with the automobile.
Americans are spending $65 billion on car,
buying 8 million of them every 12 month.
By now, the USA is making 80% of the world's automobiles.
More than 20,000 cars a day
roll off the production line across the country.
Four times as many as the Model T at its height.
There was now a car in every driveway,
maybe 2 cars in every driveway.
One for mom, one for dad,
and maybe one for the oldest child.
We have this ideal of American life
as the two parents, two children,
brand new gleaming American cars with fins
the size of Pennsylvania coming off the rear of it.
Once Americans get into their cars, there is no going back.
The Interstate Highways take them
where they've never been before,
meaning some places get left behind.
No one really thought about
how it would fundamentally change these communities
because on Route 66, they would always say
"We didn't have to travel, the world come to us."
And overnight when the ribbon cut on the Interstate highway system,
they were bypassing the town.
And many towns died.
You know, they call it death by interstate.
The interstates bypass the towns,
but they lead somewhere else
to America's next invention-- the suburbs.
America has always used technology
to overcome the challenges of its vast open spaces.
Carving out the environment,
building houses for its people, shaping its future.
Technology has built America.
Every major development in the history of America
technology has been the center of it.
50 million trees.
Nine million square miles of wilderness.
60 million bisons.
This is what the first settlers were faced with.
Within a year of arriving at Jamestown,
they had built themselves a fort, a church and 50 houses.
If America needs it, they build it.
If people need housing, they will always find a way.
That is the American dream.
To just create a new life for yourself, reinvent yourself
get a little patch of land somewhere
grow some crops and be the master of your own destiny.
America is about to embark on its
biggest house building project ever.
This greatest generation and what they went through
Then they came home and just went back to being civilians.
Houses have been built before.
But never on this scale.
13 million over the next decade.
Because at the end of the day I do want to go home.
I want to drink a few beers and I want to watch my football
and I want to have my backyard barbecues
and celebrate the 4th of July.
And the problem to be tackled this time
is the sheer scale of what's required.
330 new babies delivered every hour.
That's one baby every ten seconds.
It's the baby boom.
They all need housing.
A million acres are plowed under each year of the 1950s
for housing plots.
3,000 acres a day.
It's the birth of suburbia. The next innovation.
Building houses outside the cities
to give new families a new life.
Farmland into family homes.
New York loses about two million people over that period.
And it looks like people are just going to slowly kind of hollow out the inner city.
And they would buy a new, perhaps,
saltbox house in Levittown in New York
or its equivalent housing development across the country.
All of these icons of sort of the 1950s
domestic culture, suburban culture
that begin to emerge during these years.
Levitt and Sons are family builders.
They'll give their name to America's
most famous post-war housing:
Here on this Levittown and Sons construction site,
they're building houses almost as fast as babies are born.
One every 16 minutes.
8:00 am, trucks unload.
9:30, bathrooms arrive.
11:00, floors are laid.
300 windows a day.
30 baths a day.
These techniques are inspired by the industrial age.
1840, Lowell Mills Massachusetts,
the manufacture of cotton is
transformed by mechanized looms.
1918, Henry Ford's Detroit production line.
The automobile revolution.
Now in the 1950s
America is mass producing family homes.
Levitt and Sons call it
the Ford production line of house building.
This is human enterprise.
Putting these buildings there they were put there
by free men and women making their own free decisions.
By 1951, Levittown New York
has 17,000 identical new homes.
A second Levittown is built in Philadelphia.
A third in New Jersey.
My father grew up very poor during the Depression.
He fought in World War II.
It was a big deal for him to get out of a poor neighborhood
and buy a 50x100 lot in Franklin Square Long Island,
where I grew up.
There was a feeling the country now has regained prosperity.
After the long decade of the Great Depression
which had made many people think
the prosperity might never return.
A family home for less than $8,000.
That's $71,000 in today's money.
Down to the eve of World War II, down to 1940 or so
only about 40% of Americans owned their own homes.
By 1960, one short generation later,
60% of Americans owned their own homes.
That's just one way to quantify
the spread of affluence and prosperity
and all that came with that in terms of self-confidence
and enthusiasm for the future.
The American home has developed since the Pilgrims,
into, really, the center of the family.
The family is the most important
social unit in the United States.
And it should be.
Through the centuries,
the family home has shaped America
and showcased American innovation.
Plantation houses built by stone masons.
Log cabins made from what's available on the land.
Merchants' houses, the backbone for the early cities.
Each time technology has transformed
how these houses have been built
and where they've been built.
Overcoming the extremes of America's climate.
1913, Los Angeles booms when
the L.A. Aqueduct brings in water.
Without it, the city would have stayed an outpost.
Now it's air conditioning that wins the South.
1902, invented in New York,
1952, $250 million worth of air con units are sold.
Hispanic architecture had once
kept the Sun Belt States cool.
Now it's air con.
In the 1960s, more people moved to the Southern states
than moved out after the Civil War.
America's toughest landscapes opened up for housing.
California and Florida became states that were overrun
with new people moving in and wanting to live a better life.
Living a better life
goes back to the big innovation of the 19th century:
Andrew Carnegie has a vision.
making steel the greatest building material in the world.
Malleable, versatile, strong and now affordable.
易成形 用途广泛 坚固 而今又价格低廉
Used to construct everything
from skyscrapers to refridgerators.
Labor-saving domestic appliances
freeing people to do more with their time.
The family wash takes six hours.
Soon washing machines will do the job in 45 minutes.
One of the kind of common themes
that runs throughout the history of America
all the way back to the founders is this
really this obsession with technology and gadgets.
If you look at America's greatness
and standard of living that was built in 200 plus years,
this is America's great story.
The land of plenty has become a land of technology.
And soon that technology will take America even further.
"That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind."
Massive engineering projects uniting the nation.
Americans working together
to push the boundaries of science and technology.
There was a unity of ideas and purpose.
And that's what brought us together.
It was a spirit of exploration like when we went to the moon.
The impetus for the Apollo Space Program came from aviation.
Invented by the Wright Brothers
accelerated into production by two world wars.
won in the air and built by American technology.
300,000 aircraft made in the U.S.A. from 1941 to 1945.
Within a decade, harnessing that technology,
America will lead the world into the jet age.
and from there into space.
1959, the Boeing 707 flies between
New York and Los Angeles.
The journey that once took four days by road
now takes six hours.
Today, over two million make that trip every year.
The push to fly faster and further is unstoppable.
Airplanes, rockets, spacecraft.
飞机 火箭 宇宙飞船
And people on the moon.
What a magnificent testimony to the progress of humanity.
1961. President John F. Kennedy tells the world
that America will put a man on the moon.
I still remember when I was a little kid, you know,
John F. Kennedy stand up there and saying
"We are gonna go to the moon by the end of this decade."
America had been a land of frontiers
from the early 17th Century.
And the frontiers had moved gradually across America
and now it seemed to make sense
that the frontier would expand beyond
the boundaries of the earth.
Space is unchartered territory.
Like the expansion westward.
A grueling five-month journey through the interior.
It hasn't stopped America before.
The pioneering spirit drives people onward.
Americans are impatient.
They want to see new things, new opportunities.
And they challenged millions of people
into putting this program together.
And you know what? They did it.
We just made it.
July of that last year of that decade,
we just made it.
400,000 Americans worked directly on "Apollo" 11.
Flight controllers, engineers, scientists, seamstresses.
航空指挥官 工程师 科学家 裁缝
After 8 years, they're ready for the big one.
And the fact that this team of delicate people
from astronauts all the way down to, you know,
every engineer to achieve that goal
it's really one of the truly inspiring stories
in American history.
A timeline planned down to the last second.
17,000 people in Florida to handle take-off.
131 people man the mission control room in Houston, Texas.
Ten, nine... ignition sequence, start.
十 九 开始点火
3,000 tons of metal
and three astronauts set off for the moon.
Six, five, four, three, two, one.
六 五 四 三 二 一
All engine running.
We have a liftoff.
We set our sights on the moon and everybody felt that, yeah,
it sounds impossible.
But we're in this business and we're gonna do it.
More power than all the waterfalls in North America combined.
60 feet taller than the Statue of Liberty.
A million gallons of fuel.
Enough to drive a car around the globe 400 times.
All the team work and discipline
still leaves the astronauts to face the unknown alone.
When they approached the moon they did a burn
to slow the command module down
so they could go into lunar orbit.
If it didn't work, they would have shot past the moon
into the distant solar system never to be seen again.
Less than 30 seconds of fuel are left
when the landing craft touches down.
And then he said "Contact light on.
Tranquility base here. The eagle has landed."
"We copy on the ground."
"That's one small step for man,
one giant leap for mankind."
I thought for a minute, "Isn't this beautiful?
it's magnificent desolation."
The Stars and Stripes first raised in 1776.
Now planted on the moon.
Walk around the moon and
look back at the world. You know?
A view that nobody else has ever seen.
We believed they could do anything.
We believed NASA's technology was perfect.
It was the genius of
the best of American science and engineering.
And it was.
You have to remember what we had come through
leading up to that summer night in 1969.
we lost a President to assassination.
We lost his brother to assassination.
But for a few minutes one summer night,
we all stood and stared up at the heavens.
That became the first of nine spaceships
that went to the moon
and 24 Americans reached the moon.
And we landed six out of seven times.
And I think for the country as a whole
it remains something of a metaphor. You know,
you always have to say
we did the Appollo Project
to solve this problem that problem.
The lunar landing unites America.
It is the nation's greatest scientific achievement.
Technology is powering forward.
But America is held back.
There's a fault line that changed the nation:
African Americans have been part of America's story
from the beginning.
As foot soldiers and fighting men,
civilians and citizens,
doing the dangerous job of whaling in the 19th century.
1619. The first Africans arrived in Virginia.
Although some will gain their freedom and own land
most were slaves.
Over 200 years,
slavery became a key part of the American economy,
particularly in the South.
By 1861, nearly four million slaves.
They helped to fuel a $2 billion cotton boom
that makes the South rich.
The ghosts are very much alive today in people
who have, if not the actual memory of that,
but a family memory, a memory of what that was like
and the social memory of what it was like
when people were treated as things.
Now, in 1963,
drawing on the inspiration of their deeper past,
African Americans are about to change everything.
This country once and for all grasps the nettle
of the most vexed issue in all of this country's history,
which is race.
We waited a hundred years after the Civil War
to take that issue up again.
The Civil War was fought in part
over the right to own slaves.
When it was over,
African Americans were supposed to
be on an equal footing,
but segregation then took hold in the South.
And so you needed that second Civil War.
I call it that
others would not perhaps call it the same thing.
But it was a different kind of Civil War.
But it had the same goal as the first Civil War did.
And it was led by different people.
20th century America will see a long struggle for equality.
Race riots in Chicago in 1919 leave 38 dead.
In the segregated South, separate schools,
separate buses, separate restaurants.
Twice as many unemployed.
Change begins when one million black soldiers join up in World War II.
And blacks demonstrated
they could fly planes just like anyone else,
they could sail ships,
they could do anything the white soldier could do.
They don't know it yet, but these soldiers
are the beginning of the modern civil rights movement.
Individuals more than willing
to fight and die for our country and for the freedoms
that our country represented.
Yet freedoms that were not still truly shared by all Americans.
And the first step towards equal rights is taken.
The military is desegregated.
No more whites-only regiments,
no more blacks-only Regiments.
Just Americans shoulder to shoulder.
When I came in, my superior said to me,
we don't care if you're black,
we don't care if you're white.
We don't want to hear any hard luck stories.
The only thing we care about is performance.
But outside the military, it is a different story.
Blacks do not have the same status as whites.
The people among us who in many cases
were doing the dirty work of society,
the people who were making the hotels
ready for us to stay in
and serving us food at restaurants that wouldn't see them as guests.
The civil rights movement of the 1960s
will use words and actions
to convince the world that the time for freedom has come.
that African Americans are ready to fight for justice.
So people say,
why are you gonna identify yourself as black.
Because I'm black.
And because everybody else would identify me as black.
And did for the most of my life.
Now, they might not think
that same way about my children
but I will not shrink from that.
And the single reason why I won't is
because of all those who went before me.
To put right the wrongs of slavery.
That's what motivated those who went before.
Come on, you all!
Blacks who despite being enslaved
were already fighting for freedom.
Inspirational people like Harriet Tubman.
A former slave.
From 1849 she was part of an underground network
bringing some 300 slaves to freedom.
One of America's first civil rights activists.
I mean it's a story that's not just about black people,
but it's about human beings caring for other people
and having the courage to do
what is right even at peril to yourself.
The voice of the modern civil rights movement
and its most determined and eloquent leader
is Martin Luther King, Jr.
Baptist minister, preacher and campaigner.
浸礼会牧师 布道者 活动家
August 1963, Martin Luther King, Jr.
leads 250,000 on the March on Washington.
His marvelous speech that every American knows
at the Lincoln Memorial talking about "I have a dream".
America is telling the world
that blacks and whites have come together
to say we are ready to make the next step toward equality
and the young, black preacher talked about a dream
that connected back to the American dream.
What he did was hold a mirror up
to the face of all Americans
and said, hey, it's been a couple hundred years
now let's do what the Declaration of Independence actually said.
We hold these truth to be self-evident,
that all men are created equal.
The promise of 1776 back on the agenda.
Now this is a culmination of everybody together
saying this.. this is our moment.
This is the time for us.
Whites looked inside themselves and said you know what,
why should black kids go to second-rate schools?
That's not good for the country.
That's not good for what we are as people.
That's when the tipping point was reached.
A year after the March on Washington,
the Civil Rights Act is passed through Congress.
Voting rights extended.
Racial discrimination outlawed, segregation ended.
America's problem with race does not disappear.
But the way is paved for an African American
to reach the White House.
To be able to inspire our kids,
let them know that they have such greatness out there
they can be anything they want to be
and we can mean that.
Fighting segregation and discrimination by law
and we're changing hearts and minds.
We're moving out of that and memories tend to fade.
But not for me.
I'll never forget.
But, 1960s America still has a problem.
A growing challenge from beyond the nation's shores.
A rival that wants to blow the USA out of the water.
July 1945, New Mexico.
The Manhattan Project.
Robert Oppenheimer leads the team that
develops the atomic bomb.
The original weapon of mass destruction.
Terrifying in its power.
And America got there first.
Only the Americans in the end
had a plausible chance at success
because they have the enormous resources
they could invest in this thing
on a crash basis and make it happen.
But someone else wants one too.
America's great rival on the world stage, the Soviet Union.
Now that America has the bomb,
they'll stop at nothing to build their own.
Communist spies even infiltrate the Manhattan Project.
The arms race between the world's superpowers has begun.
You could not possibly have grown up in this country in that era
without being very acutely aware of
that great diplomatic standoff between the Soviet Union
and the United States that we call the Cold War.
After 1949, when the Soviets got the atomic bomb,
this was a foe that could wreck horrible damage
on the United States at an instant's notice.
It was a time unlike anything Americans had lived through before.
It's the Cold War and Americans are on red alert.
We did these duck-and-cover drills routinely at school.
First you duck, then you cover.
The siren would be tested and we were instructed
how to get under the desk and cover your head and face
so that the debris from glass blowing in from the windows
when the atomic bomb went off downtown wouldn't hurt us.
Both sides stockpile weapons
to defend themselves against possible attack.
From 1940 to 1996.
The USA will spend $5.5 trillion on nuclear weapons.
That's nearly $20,000 for every man, woman, and child in America.
It was the arrival really of the specter of real nuclear war.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki were no longer seen
as isolated one time incidents.
By the mid-1950s,
there were over 40,000 defense contractors
working for the federal government.
America has always won wars using technology.
In the revolutionary war,
the accuracy of the Kentucky Rifle
was a key factor in defeating the British.
In the Civil War, the minie ball
could travel 600 yards and shatter bones on impact.
1959, America's first intercontinental ballistic missile.
It can travel 3,500 miles and destroy cities.
200 years of American weapons
finding their target
and defeating the enemy.
But this time it's different.
This is a war that no one can win.
If an atomic bomb is used, there's no going back.
Every time the Soviets make a move
American fear the worst.
1960, the U2 incident
when a US spy plane is shot down over the Soviet Union.
1962, The Cuban Missile Crisis.
The standoff with Moscow over nuclear weapons in America's backyard.
Actual warheads - the bombs,
the actual bombs were in Cuba.
They were already there. And the delivery system was coming over.
Suddenly it seems very important
to have adequate supplies in every home.
I remember vividly people going to the local supermarkets
and buying up all kinds of canned goods
and throwing them back in their cars
and driving up to the Siskiyou Mountains or the Trinity Alps
or the Sierra Nevada Range
to get out of the blast range of any nuclear weapons
that might fall in the bay area.
There are rumors that an attack may come from within,
that Soviet spies are plotting to bring America down.
The Senate sets up hearings
to unmask communists in the government and media.
And they saw ghosts behind every corner
and enemies on every bookshelf.
So this effort to root out the enemy at home
became a defining moment.
After World War II when the Cold War emerged
there was this feeling
that the country could split apart very easily politically
and there was a desire that that not happen.
So there was this kind of sort of self-imposed conformity.
If the communists are atheists, Americans are religious.
If the communists are acting collectively,
we are true individuals.
If the communists want to break down family structures,
we are the tight nuclear family.
These threats to the nation's freedoms
are just too close for comfort.
The United States has seen off superpowers in the past.
Digging deep to defend what matters.
Maybe the most important values we have
are our family, faith, and the American flag.
家庭 信仰 和飘扬的星条旗
But these values,
which Americans have defended since the Revolution,
are about to be challenged in unexpected ways.