Boom turns to bust when the stock market crash ushers in the Great Depression. Dust storms blanket the Midwest in darkness. Roosevelt's New Deal signals recovery; thousands find work on projects like the Hoover Dam and Mount Rushmore. 繁荣转向萧条股市崩盘后，迎来了大萧条。沙尘暴覆盖中西部地区在黑暗中。罗斯福新政的信号恢复；成千上万找到工作的项目一样，胡佛大坝和拉什莫尔山。
America boom. But now, it's bust.
The Great Depression explodes across America.
Social upheaval, poverty, drought.
社会动荡 民生凋敝 旱情四起
It's time for America...to fight back.
The American spirit is forged
in the fires of Great Depression.
We are pioneers...and trailblazers.
We fight for freedom.
We transform our dreams into the truth.
Our struggles will become a nation.
The 1920s is boom time in America.
Money flows and oil wells explode.
Though farmers are struggling, cities expand.
Skyscrapers go higher than the stock market.
Aspirations run wild for cars
and suburban housing projects like Hollywoodland.
more money is spent on advertising than on education.
We got a little carried away with consumerism and capitalism
and it bite us in the butt.
The boom is built on credit.
$6 billion of goods are bought on credit,
but 80% of Americans have no savings at all.
Some stocks are valued at
50 times what they're really worth.
A giant bubble just ready to burst.
By October 1929, the inevitable happens.
The stock market loses 12 times
more money in three weeks,
than the US government uses in a year.
The entire country could've gone down--
and almost did, from an economic point of view.
For a year after the stock-market crash,
America's economy teeters on the edge of the abyss.
The streets of New York are quiet.
It's been a year since the stock-market crash of 1929,
but only 2% of the population own stocks.
The other 98% get on with their lives.
This man is about to shake
America's confidence in its banks to its very core.
He's put his money in his local bank.
The Bank of United States,
a bank that has only hours left to exist.
But a newspaper article questions his bank's stability.
This is the moment that begins a chain reaction
that will shake the whole country's economy...
yet we don't even know the man's name.
But his story was recorded by "The New York Times."
A small merchant in the Bronx
went to a branch of the Bank of United States
and asked bank officials to
dispose of his stock in the institution.
Good day, sir, how may I help you?
您好 先生 有什么可以为您效劳的
Yes, I'd like to withdraw my shares from the bank.
I beg your pardon, sir?
Bank regulations are virtually nonexistent at the time.
Bad real-estate investments mean
the bank has only kept itself afloat by cooking the books.
Good day, sir, how may I be of assistance?
您好 先生 需要我帮忙吗
I'd like to sell my shares.
Well, the stock is a good investment, sir.
I would advise against the sale.
I want my money.
The last thing the bank needs is to hand out all its cash.
We almost witnessed that fairly recently
and I've seen what can go on, and I've seen travesty.
He departed and apparently spread a false report,
that the bank had refused to sell his stock.
a considerable crowd had gathered outside the bank,
estimated at between 20,000 and 25,000 persons.
This is the day worry turns to panic.
Would the banks go the same way as the stock market?
Hysteria spreads like wildfire.
$2 million are withdrawn from this branch alone.
Even though all the anxious depositors who
asked for their money before closing time were given it...
the crowd became restless.
A squad of police were sent in to control them.
The trouble spreads to other branches.
By the next morning,
the Bank of United States has collapsed.
Confidence in US banks disintegrates.
In the last 60 days of 1930, 600 banks shut.
Banks close in wave after wave across the country.
By 1933, there are 28 states without a single bank open.
the federal government does not bail out the banks.
Unemployment goes from 4 million in 1930
to 12 million in 1932.
Every day, 1,000 homes are repossessed.
200,000 vagrant children wander the country.
34 million Americans have no source of income.
It was an American tragedy, the Depression was,
and it took American ingenuity to lift America out of it.
The fight back starts here.
Vast building projects, publicly funded...privately built.
This is Frank "Hurry Up" Crowe.
He's already built six dams on time and under budget.
And now he has his eye on something even bigger:
the Colorado River.
I was wild to build this dam,
the biggest dam ever built by anyone, anywhere.
The Colorado River is one of the
most powerful rivers in the world.
Every second, twice as much water
tears through these canyons than goes over Niagara Falls.
Frank Crowe's plan is to harness it.
The water and hydroelectricity
will transform the whole of the Southwest.
March 4, 1931.
The government gives the go-ahead
to build the Hoover Dam.
The Hoover Dam, even before they started building it,
it became a metaphor,
people saw it as a statement of the American's fortitude,
of our ingenuity, of our talent for hard work
and for our willingness to
transform the environment around us.
The Hoover Dam will cost
nearly $1 billion in today's money.
Frank Crowe is offered a 2.5% cut of the dam's profits
if he gets the job done quickly.
It should take 6 years to build,
but Frank says it can be done in 4.
42,000 men come from across the country
looking for jobs on the biggest construction site in America.
Frank Crowe takes 5,000 men
willing to work harder and faster than anyone else.
The survival of the fittest.
Men are ready to do anything for work.
There's a large cando attitude in the United States
and it come soon the fact that over the centuries,
there has been a lot of adversity,
and we have usually triumphed.
First was the triumph of
developing this whole vast continent,
putting in railroad lines,
putting in all the civil engineering to support it,
putting in Hoover Dam.
These were all incredible challenges.
There are two stages to building the dam.
First, divert the river around the worksite.
第一步 让河水改道 绕过工地周围
Second, build the colossal wall.
To divert the raging Colorado,
four massive tunnels are
drilled through 3 miles of solid rock.
Each tunnel is as wide as a four lane highway
and is tall as a 5-story building.
A million and a half gallons of water
flow through here every second.
The Hoover Dam was a statement
about what America is all about.
Nothing is too big to take on.
We are going to change this country.
If Frank Crow was in a hurry before,
now the pressure is double.
Time and money.
The tunnels can only be dug when the river is low.
That's only four months in a year.
And the money.
There is a $3,000 fine for every day
the project falls behind the schedule.
The clock is ticking.
Frank's answer is as bold as he is.
Gigantic mobile drilling rigs.
4 stories of scaffolding mounted on the backs of trucks.
Up to 30 men drill into
the rock around the clock, 24 hours a day.
They move ten times faster than normal drilling.
Temperatures hit 140 degrees in the tunnels.
Frank just pushes harder.
The drilling crews compete against each other.
Which will drill the furthest every day?
As drill man Marion Allen puts it:
It didn't make any difference what you did,
but you had to beat that other crew.
Deadly fumes pump out of the trucks.
They build up in the tunnel.
They get into the men's lungs, into their blood.
You men, get him out of here.
Carbon monoxide poisoning claims hundreds of men.
I went to work down there one night,
and there was 17 men in my crew.
The next morning,
myself and three others was all that was left.
All the rest was taken out sick. It was rough.
Crowe has only one working rule.
To hell with excuses-- get results.
But the drive to get results quickly
will have deadly consequences.
Men desperate to keep their jobs make mistakes
like trying to clear rubble before the blasting is finished.
You are having to dynamite areas and you have to dig out.
but you're still using a lot of pick and shovel.
A miner's wife remembers
one worker, desperate to keep his job.
Everybody was trying to work in the tunnels.
This man was so anxious to work
that he just went into the tunnel too quick.
Just as he put his shovel in, there was a delayed blast.
The company says 96 men died.
The workers claim it's hundreds.
The tunnels are finished 11 months ahead of time.
But that's just the beginning of the Hoover Dam.
The hardest job is yet to come:
building the biggest concrete structure on earth.
Frank Crowe is driving ahead the
building of the Hoover Dam,
the biggest engineering project America has ever seen.
He's driving his men hard.
The crews work day and night.
A sea of concrete rises in the canyon,
as thick as two football fields laid end to end.
5,000 men, 50,000 machines and tools,
the best engineers alive,
enough materials to fill a train 1,000 miles long.
This is the 1930s' equivalent
of putting a man on the moon.
6.6 million tons of concrete have to be poured.
That's enough to lay a 4-foot-wide sidewalk around the earth.
How to pour that much concrete
and get it where it's needed?
Frank Crowe designs the most
sophisticated cable system ever built.
Giant bottom-opening buckets.
They pour the concrete into molds
exactly where it is wanted.
Concrete was invented by the Romans 2,000 years ago,
but the Hoover Dam is the
first large concrete dam in history.
Today virtually all dams are made of concrete.
It's malleable and it's strong.
It's the world's favorite building material for any structure.
Frank is up against the clock, and he has a big problem.
The curing concrete generates heat.
If the dam were constructed in a single, continuous pour,
it would put out enough heat to bake
half a million loaves of bread every day for three years.
But worse, the dam would take 125 years to harden.
Frank Crowe's got no time for that.
Backs against the wall, we figured out who we were.
We worked our way out of that Depression.
The secret of cooling the concrete
lies within the dam itself.
582 miles of 1-inch pipes
carry ice-cold water from the very river the dam is taming.
No one had ever thought of this before,
and those pipes are still in the Hoover Dam today.
Frank "Hurry Up" Crowe lives up to his name.
The Hoover Dam is completed on September 30,1935,
two years ahead of schedule.
Frank receives a bonus worth
over $4 million in today's money.
For those workers to have built something as monumental
and as challenging as Hoover Dam was,
it was an astonishing feat of construction
and I think it gave us all a sense of the possible.
1936. The Hoover Dam
is the largest hydroelectric
power-producing facility in the world.
Each of the 17 generators weighs
more than four jumbo jets.
Together, they can supply power to 750,000 people
in booming cities like Los Angeles.
The dam creates Lake Mead,
the biggest reservoir in America,
big enough to flood the entire
state of New York under a foot of water.
It helps California produce more food,
for the United States than any other state.
The Hoover Dam workers make something else boom as well.
A little town 30 miles away where
they go to drink and gamble.
As the wife of one Hoover Dam worker puts it:
When men worked in such dangerous surroundings,
you couldn't blame a lot of fellas
for sort of letting their hair down.
They were having fun.
1930. 5,000 people live in Las Vegas.
Then the dam workers arrive.
Then the tourists. Then the gambling.
Now, over 37 million people
come every year to party in Las Vegas.
After 70 years, the Hoover Dam still
supplies power to the people of Nevada, Arizona,
One Las Vegas hotel has the biggest flashlight on earth,
40 billion candle power.
You can read a newspaper
10 miles out in space by its light.
1934. Darkness falls across America.
The worst environmental disaster in American history.
Dust storms hit New York, Chicago and Boston.
沙尘暴 侵袭纽约 芝加哥和波士顿
In Manhattan, the streetlights come on at midday.
A monstrous dust storm 1,800 miles wide
from the Great Plains to the Atlantic Ocean.
The air turns to earth.
The storm carries 3 tons of dust for every American alive.
Ships stop off the Eastern Seaboard,
not sure what is happening.
The cloud reminds the captain of the ship "The Deutschland"
of the sands of the Sahara blowing out to sea.
But now the clouds are devouring the Statue of Liberty.
Dust storms were born out of a 100 million-acre dead zone
2,000 miles away in Oklahoma,
Texas, Kansas and Colorado.
The Great Plains had once been
the most fertile grasslands on earth.
The topsoil was 6 feet deep,
but it has been plowed up and used up
by four generations of farmers.
Now the sun has dried it up.
What really did the farmers in
was an environmental cataclysm
that involved an extended drought, high winds,
and the loss of millions and millions of tons of topsoil.
It was almost as though the heavens themselves
had turned against the farmers.
By 1930, the rains virtually stop.
The lighter organic matter, the best soil,
is literally gone with the wind.
The tiny particles of soil are suspended in the air.
Then a freakish phenomenon happens.
Static electricity builds between the earth and the dust.
Like a magnet,
the static electricity sucks up more and more dust,
feeding itself, growing in size and power.
A monster is created.
The dust is lifted up to 10,000 feet.
Powered by high-altitude winds,
the monster rips across the country looking for prey.
April 14, 1935. Lamar, Colorado.
Louise Walton, once a Broadway dancer and an actress.
She gives up the glamour
to breathe the clean, dry air of the prairies.
The doctors say her lungs need it.
Louise thrives on the Southern Plains,
and so did her six-year-old daughter Jeanne...
Their rural dream has become a nightmare.
49 dust storms in the last three months.
But today the air is crisp and clear.
Jeanne has just got out of hospital
with respiratory problems because of the dust storms.
Early that morning,
600 miles north,
a cold front from Canada
had hit a warm high-pressure front--
perfect conditions to create the winds for a dust storm.
But this is not just any duster.
By the time it passes Bismarck, North Dakota,
it's the biggest, strongest dust storm
ever seen in America.
The cold front drives the storm south across the prairies.
It's heading straight for
Louise and Jeanne's place at 65 miles per hour.
It grows more and more powerful.
It produces enough static
electricity to power New York City.
By the time the storm reaches Lamar, colorado,
it is 200 miles wide.
The temperature plunges.
Jeanne finds herself looking into the heart of the storm.
It was like I was caught in a whirlpool.
All of a sudden, it got completely dark.
I couldn't see a thing.
The dust clouds contain over 300,000 tons
of Great Plains topsoil.
People tie themselves to ropes
before going to a barn just a few hundred feet away.
Cattle die, and when they are cut open,
their stomachs are full of sand.
There are these memories of people
that go for days and days and days holed up
inside of their little ranch houses,
and they never see the light of day
because the dust is so severe
and it's so thick, over hundreds of miles.
For days, they don't see light.
The tiny dust particles drill into the child's lungs.
She comes down with dust pneumonia, the brown plague.
The Red Cross set up six emergency hospitals
in Kansas, Colorado, and Texas
to deal with the rise of respiratory infections.
Louise Walton had come to Colorado for the air,
and now doctors tell her
that her little girl could die of it.
There is an Exodus of Biblical proportions
underway on the Great Plains.
By 1936, farmers are losing $25 million a day.
Farming is no longer a possibility.
The Great Depression takes hold.
Their mortgage comes due, they can't pay it--
they're not growing crops.
They lose the family farm, they lose their identity.
A century before, a half a million people
had gone west on these same trails looking for hope.
Now 250,000 of them are fleeing the Dust Bowl in despair.
But not everyone has the choice to leave.
Jeanne and Louise survive Black Sunday and stay put.
2/3 of Dust Bowlers stick it out.
They have nothing left but their determination and will.
Radio is one of the few things to
bring comfort to those who stay.
It connects them to the rest of the country.
a network of stations with 10,000-watt transmitters
links the country together.
The same voice can be heard from coast to coast.
Radios become the country's most popular household item.
By 1934, there are over 18 million radio sets.
40% of America lives in isolated rural communities,
but now they can get local news and weather,
farm prices, and be part of national events.
America was built for the introduction of radio.
This is a vast land.
It has a lot of different layers to it
as you go across the country.
America was learning about itself
through news from across the country and around the world.
Germany is rearming.
Regular news reports
bring international events straight into American homes.
Little do Americans realize that
news from so far away will change America forever.
... will tie Hitler's ambitious...
The struggle against the Great Depression continues.
The American people will not give up.
The French gave America the Statue of Liberty.
Now America builds her own monument
to its people's tenacity.
Blasted out of solid rock, Mount Rushmore is created.
The blasting of Washington's chin
and the first step in the world's largest monument is finished.
It began in 1927,
desolate corner of South Dakota,
as a way to attract tourists.
Now it's a federally funded project,
part of President Roosevelt's New Deal,
to reinvigorate the country.
Soon they'll start on Jefferson, then Lincoln
The heads alone will be 60 feet high
and Washington's nose is 19 feet long,
as big as the head of the Sphinx in Egypt.
You can get a good idea of the size of the monument
by these men playing leapfrog
along the nose of the father of his country.
It's a grand undertaking.
They were, in a way, our pyramids.
We were building something that would last
and be a statement about who we were.
The 500-foot cliff is being sculpted by dynamite...
a dangerous way to make a living
for drillers like Bill Reynolds.
Below Bill are 20 charges of dynamite
able to blast 3 tons of solid rock.
Above him is 60 feet of sheer cliff...
where the detonator and the hoist man are.
Take me up!
Drillers always move up to stay above any charges,
just in case they should accidentally go off.
The charges are due to be set off at 4:00 p.m.
It's only 3:34,
so Bill's not worried.
But behind him,
a mighty Midwestern storm is brewing.
He has no idea what is happening 5 miles away.
The electrical charge runs straight down the power lines
into Mount Rushmore...and the detonator.
Bill Reynolds survives with only a burst eardrum
and his boots blown off.
He's back on the job the very next day.
Mount Rushmore becomes a symbol of pride for the whole country.
Abraham Lincoln, Theodore Roosevelt,
and Thomas Jefferson's portraits
join George Washington's.
Ordinary men of the same proportions
would stand as high as 40-story buildings
and could wade the Mississippi River
without even getting their knees wet.
3 extra inches of granite cover the presidents' faces
to allow for erosion by wind and rain.
It takes 10,000 years to wear away an inch of granite.
Mount Rushmore has been designed to wear back
to its ideal shape in 30,000 years.
It is a symbol of America's faith in its future as well as its past.
one in six workers are still out of a job.
Despite the government's public-works programs,
there is little economic recovery.
Public works aren't working.
Free enterprise is stagnating.
It will take World War II
to pull America out of its economic slump.
Louis in the front of the ring,
Schmeling with his back to me...
June 19, 1936.
America is already at war with Germany in Yankee Stadium.
American Joe Louis fights German Max Schmeling,
to be the number-one contender
for the Heavyweight Championship of the world.
And there was a hard left...
With a record of 24 straight wins, Joe is the 10:1 favorite.
Indeed Louis, a terrific right hand to the jaw...
57 million people listen to the fight on the radio.
... while Louis is following it up
with good short rights and lefts.
It's the 12th and last round.
Joe Louis is taking a beating.
Schmeling's cut back and
shot a hard right hand to Louis' jaw.
The grandson of slaves,
his family driven out of Alabama by the Ku Klux Klan.
The Depression takes his family's jobs.
Unemployment amongst urban african-Americans is up to 50%.
Joe keeps his family alive by boxing.
Within three years, he's fought his way to the top.
These are not just two boxers,
they're symbols of totalitarianism against democracy,
supremacy against a nonracial kind of society.
America sees Schmeling as old.
He's 30, Joe's 22.
Schmeling gets over two more hard rights to Louis' jaw.
He has puffed up Louis' left cheek. And Louis is down!
Joe has underestimated his much older German opponent.
And Louis is down!
Hanging through the ropes, hanging badly.
He is a very tired fighter.
He is blinking his eyes, shaking his head.
The count is done, the fight is over!
The fight is over!
Schmeling wins, against all the odds.
Schmeling is the winner. Louis is completely out.
Germany is on the rise.
America is on its knees.
But not for long.
America will get its revenge
in the most politically charged fight of all time.
Boxer Joe Louis just knocked out by Max Schmeling.
Germany is triumphant.
America is in shock.
It's a publicity dream for the Nazis.
Adolf Hitler calls Schmeling an Aryan superman.
Hitler considers Americans a mongrel race,
doomed to the trash heap of history.
Hitler says their "mistake" was freeing their slaves.
I had been humiliated,
and I had to prove that I was the best heavyweight around.
A rematch is arranged, but this time,
it'll be the fight that involves the whole world.
Though attacked in the press,
Joe just keeps training.
In Germany, the Nazis expand their power.
They build their army and
prepare to attack their neighbors.
The second Joe Louis-Max Schmeling fight
took on a proportion far greater than
any other fight in the history of boxing.
This is the feature attraction, 15 rounds...
This fight cemented the unity of
the people of the United States, vis-a-vis Nazi Germany.
Weighing 193, Max Schmeling.
And for one of the first times,
if not the first time in American history,
America symbolically was being represented by a black man.
Wearing black trunks,
the famous Detroit Brown Bomber, Joe Louis.
June 22, 1938.
The rematch finally takes place.
The hype is at a fever pitch.
70,000 people pour into Yankee Stadium to watch the fight live.
Joe Louis in his corner, prancing and....
70 million people tune in via radio across the country.
Over 100 million listen in around the world,
the biggest audience to that date for anything, anywhere.
Max Schmeling standing calmly,
getting last word from Doc Casey.
For Joe Louis, I can only imagine the immense pressure
that he was under to go out there and perform
because he had the whole-- almost the world on his back.
The fight is no longer just about boxing.
It's a battle of ideologies, as Joe Louis knew all too well.
Schmeling represented everything that Americans disliked,
and they wanted him beat and beat good.
And they're ready with the bell just about to ring.
And there we are. And they got to the ring...
And Joe Louis is in the center of the ring,
Max going around.
Joe Louis with two straight lefts to the chin.
to the jaw.
And, again, a right to the body.
A left hook,
and Louis hooks a left to Max's head quickly.
And shoots over a high right to Max's head.
Louis, a left to Max's jaw, a right to his head.
Max shoots a hard right.
Schmeling is stunned by the ferocity of Louis' attack.
He's landed more blows in this one round
than he landed in his five rounds with the other fights.
... Schmeling's going down.
And Schmeling is down!
The count is four.
And Louis, right and left to the head,
left to the jaw, a right to the head.
And the German is watching carefully.
And Schmeling is down.
Schmeling is down.
The count at five...
Five, six, seven, eight.
五 六 七 八
The fight is over...
The second-shortest heavyweight title fight in history
is over in only 124 seconds.
Max Schmeling is beaten in one round!
The first time in a world heavyweight championship...
I'm sure enough champion now.
At the end of the fight, Joe Louis, this inferior,
比赛结果 乔·路易斯 这个地位卑微的
this former slave's child, defeats the master race.
Schmeling knows what his defeat will mean to the Nazis.
After this defeat, I no longer existed for Hitler.
My name simply disappeared from the newspapers.
Joe Louis is America's hero again.
His victory is the comeback the whole country needs.
Look, something's gonna knock you down, but you can't stay down.
You got to get back up and plow on.
You can't sit around feeling sorry for yourself,
and you certainly can't look back
and reminisce about the good old times.
You just got to keep on going forward and reinvent things.
And I also believe that that is going to get us through
the crises that we're facing right now.
The American spirit is forged in the fires of the Great Depression.
But an even harder fight with
Germany and her allies is still to come.
The United States of America will be attacked.
Over 400,000Americans will die.
The battle will be for survival.
For America. For the world.
对美国 对世界 都是如此
World War II will transform America
into the greatest power on earth.
Nothing would ever be the same again.