America strikes oil and the boom time begins. Henry Ford brings the motorcar to the masses; the nation hits the road. Massive engineering projects modernize the West. Intended to cure vice, Prohibition fuels the growth of organized crime. 美国罢工的石油和繁荣时期的开始。亨利福特汽车给群众带来的国家访问的道路。大型工程项目的现代化西方。用来治疗副燃料，禁止有组织犯罪的增长。
The dawn of the 20th century.
America is changing in ways never thought possible.
Cities explode outwards.
Booze fuels a criminal underworld.
Millions head north to escape poverty.
America is about to become
the richest nation on earth.
We are pioneers
We fight for freedom.
We transform our dreams into the truth.
Our struggles will become a nation.
The dawn of the greatest consumer boom
the world has ever seen.
But none of it will happen without the discovery
of what lies beneath the Texas dirt.
Oil will power the 20th century
and build the modern world.
Men call it... "Black gold."
Texas: A wide-open and wild territory.
Closer to the old West than modern day.
The Hamill brothers,
Al, 24, ex-cattleman,
弟弟艾尔 24岁 之前是放牧人
Curt, 28, ex-salesman.
哥哥科特 28岁 之前是推销员
A new breed of pioneer on the American frontier:
Young, rugged, ambitious.
年轻 刚强 志向远大
Known as some of the best in the business.
In the beginning of oil, it was hardship.
Everything was hard to do.
We didn't know anything.
Only the surface of the ground.
Oil has just been discovered in Texas,
but the wells are small.
Prospectors have a hunch
that this shallow hill near Beaumont, east of Houston,
What they don't know, what nobody knows,
is that beneath their feet
lie oil reserves worth more than $11 billion today.
Nowhere in the world
has anybody discovered this much oil before.
The first prospectors to tap into these reserves
will become rich beyond their wildest dreams.
The field the Hamill brothers are hired to drill
will become the stuff of legend...
Until the late 1850s, oil had been,
really an annoyance to most people.
And people would dig water wells,
and if they happened to strike oil by accident,
they'd curse their bad luck.
But with the development of railroads
and with the Industrial Revolution, for the first time,
people began seeking oil.
Until recently, whale oil cornered the market.
It was used in lamps to light homes and streets.
But the whales have been hunted to near-extinction.
One discovery has saved them.
Made from the remains of tiny organisms in the world's oceans,
it's been down there for as long as 160 million years.
Native Americans have used it as medicine.
Then, in 1854, scientists in Pennsylvania
随后 1854年 宾夕法尼亚的科学家
discover it can be used for lighting.
There's no turning back.
Coal still dominates industry,
powering trains and factories.
But it's dirty and less efficient.
A ton of coal has half the energy of a ton of oil.
For the right rig in the right place,
there are fortunes to be made.
Well, that is the American dream,
is that this is a land of opportunity
where anything is possible
if you roll up your sleeves and get to it.
Prospectors have tried drilling at Spindletop before,
but all previous wells here came up empty.
The land, great for farming, is lousy for drilling.
Earlier attempts hit hundreds of feet of sand and collapsed.
The Hamills get $2 for every foot they drill,
top dollar in those days.
And when investors pay top dollar,
they expect results.
Their contract pays them to 1,200 feet.
If they don't hit oil by then,
the well's a dud and they're through.
That's good, that's good.
Right now, they are at 400 feet.
Drilling for oil is dangerous work.
6,000 die in oil explosions every year.
Most rigs are primitive tools,
smashing through rock by pounding it
with a heavy object on a cable.
But this is sand.
You can't smash your way through sand.
The Hamills are gambling on revolutionary technology,
a steam engine that drills a pipe through the ground.
So far, it's been able to bore through 500 feet of sand and bedrock
with no collapses.
But at 600 feet...
The drill hits a pocket of explosive gas and water.
The pressure forces gas back up through the pipe.
They're lucky to survive.
I see a really strong parallel
between the culture of prospecting
and the culture of entrepreneurial endeavors.
You do all your surveys,
you plan it out, you think it's really great,
you dig down and there's nothing there.
It's really hard to predict.
Progress is slow.
They're fighting for every foot.
The sand is too fine even for their drill.
The walls of the bore hole are starting to collapse.
Normally these kinds of rigs pump water
into the bore hole to support its walls.
But the sand is too fine, the water too thin.
They need a thicker liquid.
They're forced to improvise,
using only material they have on hand.
We brought in a small herd of cattle
and turned them loose in a nearby water pit.
The cattle stomped around and made lots of mud for us.
The answer to all their problems is mud.
With mud holding up the walls of the bore hole,
they're back on track.
From then on,
we operated the rig 24 hours a day.
Curt's innovation is still in use today,
only now rigs use synthetic compounds.
But drilling fluids like this are still called mud.
It's January 10, 1901.
The Hamills have been drilling for over two months.
They're past 1,100 feet--still no break through.
Another 100 and they'll have to quit.
I walked over and looked down the hole there.
I heard--sort of heard something kind of bubbling
just a little bit, and looked down there.
And here, this frothy oil was starting up.
It was just breathing, like, you know,
coming up and sinking back with the gas pressure
and it kept coming up and over the rotary table,
and each flow a little higher,
and a little higher and a little higher.
This is a day that changes America forever.
Clear the rig, clear the rig!
Finally, it came up with such momentum that it just shot up
最终 石油势头强劲地涌出来 以至于
clear through the top of the derrick.
The guides of crude oil shoot almost 200 feet into the air.
The Hamills were hoping for 50 barrels a day.
The well would soon be pumping out over 80,000,
making the US the largest oil producer in the world.
Overnight, the backers funding the rig
are nearly $40 million richer.
The Hamill brothers become legends.
The oil just burst out of the ground,
and it spewed for days and days before they could bring it under control.
It really marked the beginning
of the petroleum age in the United States,
and one could argue, in the world as well.
Spindletop changes everything.
Oil production in the US instantly increases 50%.
Within a year, 500 oil companies are born,
including Texaco and Gulf.
The price of oil plummets from $2 a barrel to 3￠.
It's cheaper than water.
Cheap enough to turn into gasoline.
Around the turn of the century,
millions of Americans
live their entire lives within 50 miles of their home.
Gasoline makes the US mobile
in ways never thought possible.
Today the average American drives
the equivalent of 2 and a half round-trips to the moon.
One man will seize the opportunity in cheap oil
and change the face of the nation.
maverick, visionary, obsessive...
他标新立异 深有远见 执着坚持
a man with a bad reputation.
Recently let go by the company
that will soon become Cadillac,
he launches his third attempt to build cars.
But these will be different.
There are only 8,000 cars in the US.
Expensive toys for the wealthy,
like owning a private jet today.
There were dozens and dozens of small companies building cars
that were essentially play things for the rich.
They were notoriously unreliable,
they were not standardized,
they were hand-built, essentially.
And if you were to own a car,
you practically had to have your own mechanic on staff
as well to keep the thing running.
Nobody's figured out how to make a car
that's affordable and low-cost.
Henry Ford is about to change that.
It won't just change how cars are made.
It will change how everything is made.
Henry Ford isn't just making a revolutionary car.
He's making it in a revolutionary way.
The production line.
High volume, low cost.
The man who places the part doesn't fasten it.
The man who puts in a bolt doesn't put on the nut,
and the man who puts on the nut doesn't tighten it.
Work is standardized.
It's a more efficient way to make... everything.
Mass production sweeps the nation.
And it changes the world.
To be anassembly-line worker,
you did not have to have a high degree of skill,
you didn't have to be a card-carrying machinist
or whatever it might be.
All you had to do was to learn
how to turn the same wrench
on the same nut 5,000 times a day
and that was your job.
In 1913, a Model T cost two years' wages.
By 1924, it's just three months.
The Model T, without question,
is one of the single objects
in the history of America that changed America.
What Henry Ford developed was
the car for the common man.
The impact of this little car is massive.
300,000 sold in 1913.
there's a new Model T every 24 seconds.
Suddenly, this form of transportation,
which was entirely new,
was something that people could actually engage in.
They could afford it.
It wasn't like a spaceship,
where there are only several of them,
and they're millions and millions of dollars.
Washington State, 1915.
The Model T's success is creating a nation of student drivers.
Roscoe Sheller used to be a dairy farmer.
He's about to start a new job...
The pay is fantastic.
The only problem is... he can't drive.
You're not riding a horse, just take it easy.
His boss offers to
teach him the morning of his first day at work.
It's not long before Roscoe has his first customers.
Luckily, there's a manual called
"How to Drive an Automobile.",
Cranking is an art that is essential
for the new motorist to become proficient in.
It is always a good plan.
... undoubtedly a good idea to learn to steer first.
Steering is a very simple manipulation.
An excellent plan for the beginning is to find
a long, straight and slightly downhill road,
free of other traffic...
Roscoe takes his customers for a test drive.
Most are used to a horse and buggy.
The majority of first-time drivers
completely ignored corners.
Instead of using a brake,
they shouted "Whoa" at the top of their lung power.
Often, they demand I teach his wife
and every kid old enough to reach the pedals.
America's love affair with the automobile has begun.
The American has a great sense of freedom
and not being tied to one place.
If I don't like it here,
I'm gonna pack everything in the car.
They don't require anybody's permission,,
they don't have to sign out,
and the automobile really enables that.
When I came to America,
the first thing I want to think about,
"How can I get hold of a car?"
I had a love affair with cars from the very beginning,
because this method of movement
that can enable you to see vast, expansive space
is something I never experienced in China.
This is something I wanted to do
almost more than anything else, is to buy a car.
Roscoe Sheller is one of America's pioneer car dealers.
Today America drives 2.7 trillion miles a year
in vehicles that are descendants of Henry Ford's Model T.
By the roaring '20s,
they are transforming the lives of millions.
Now you don't have to live near work.
Cities explode outwards, creating giant suburbs.
Brand-new highways are built.
Shopping malls with giant car parks.
The biggest urban sprawl of all, Los Angeles,
the center of a massive entertainment industry.
800 films produced a year in the 1920s,
double the amount today.
A feverish land grab is in full swing.
High in the hills, a real-estate syndicate buys 500 acres.
They hire stonemasons from Italy
to build luxury mansions overlooking the city.
Dream homes fit for oil tycoons and film stars.
To kick off their investment:
the biggest advertising sign on the planet.
4,000 light bulbs announce the name of this luxury development.
Movie director Busby Berkeley
buys the first house on the plot.
It supposed to be a temporary sign.
In 1949, the end is removed.
It becomes just "Hollywood.",
Built on oil, fueled by cars and movies,
LA is the fastest-growing city in the world.
But none of this incredible growth
has been possible without one other vital ingredient.
William Mulholland: Irish immigrant,tenacious, ruthless.
威廉·穆赫兰 爱尔兰移民 固执而冷酷
Superintendent of the LA City Water Company.
LA is running out of water.
It's headline news.
It's up to Mulholland to find it.
His reputation is on the line.
The story of the West is the story of water,
because you can't turn this region
that has a fertile soil and sites for city development
without that incredibly scarce resource in the West.
Rainfall as low as 2 inches a year.
Temperatures as high as 134 degrees.
The surrounding mountains get plenty of rainfall.
The problem is, it stays there.
LA has one small river.
It provides a fraction of the water
the growing city will need.
California is at the edge of the great Western desert,
and in order for large numbers of people
to live in the cities of California,
means had to be provided to get the water,
from where it was in California, mountains,
to where the people were, in the cities.
Mulholland must find water.
The fate of Southern California hangs in the balance.
His search begins just outside the city.
He moves 200 miles northeast.
Finally, he reaches an area called Owens Valley.
Water flowing out of the mountains
has formed a massive lake, 110 square miles.
Result, an oasis of lush farmland.
Locals call it the Switzerland of California.
Aided only by gravity,
this water could flow all the way to Los Angeles.
All you need is an aqueduct.
It sounds simple,
but the engineering feat will be phenomenal.
It's going to take
223 miles of steel pipe and concrete waterway,
120 miles of railroad track,
218 miles of power lines,
500 miles of road.
If Mulholland can pull it off,
he'll completely transform not just LA,
but the entire state.
The first giant step in creating
the largest agricultural economy in the country.
But it will come at a cost.
The Los Angeles Aqueduct.
5 years, 5,000 men.
223 miles of steel and concrete
that change the face of the West.
At the time, the largest water project in the world.
It cost the lives of 43 men.
Finally, in 1913...
This is yours!
It is your own fidelity and
unfaltering courage that made the work possible.
The aqueduct is completed, and it is good.
The aqueduct saves Los Angeles.
The city grows from 250,000 in 1900
to 2 million in 1930.
The federal government's investment
in projects that move water in the West
is more deeply formative of the character of the Western region
than all the cowboys and sodbusters
and wagon trains and pioneers there ever were.
But for Owens Valley,
the source of the water, it's a disaster.
The lake is sucked dry, creating a giant wasteland.
Local farmers attempt to blow the aqueduct up,
over 10 times.
But it's an unwinnable contest.
This was controversial stuff.
There was a lot of backroom politicking,
a lot of buying people off.
This made a lot people unhappy.
This devastated a region of California,
the source of that water,
but it was enormously beneficial,
and in fact, one could argue
Los Angeles could not have grown in the way it did,
without Mulholland architecting
that aqueduct of water being brought to that area.
Owens Valley farmland remains barren for decades.
But in the 1990s, LA authorities
begin the long process of restoring it.
It's always been true that if you want something great,
you may have to give up something great to get there.
We've sacrificed our blood and treasure
for just about every great thing in America.
The Los Angeles Aqueduct
remains one of America's
most ambitious engineering efforts.
When they built the aqueduct to
bring water down across an entire state,
what a feat that was
and how it so fundamentally changed a whole part,
of the state of California.
And when you fly over California now,
I always look out the window and I look down,
you can see that glittering silver ribbon
that runs the entire length of the state.
It was always just magical to me.
The aqueduct is a year old.
America is booming.
World War I creates massive demand
for weapons, cars and oil.
In just four years, the economy doubles.
America is poised to become the richest nation on earth.
Three generations from the end of slavery,
black Southerners are on the move in search of a better life.
Between 1915 and 1930,
one and half Million head north--
one in seven of the entire
African-American population of the US.
It's called the Great Migration.
The North represented the promised land, to blacks in the South.
If you can go North, you can work.
If you can go North,
you're not going to have to step off the curb
when whites walk down the block.
If you can go North,
you can live in better neighborhoods
and your children get a better education.
Many head for the Ford plant in Detroit.
Ford is unique in paying black and white workers the same,
a staggering $5 a day,
five times more than a sharecropper's wage in Georgia.
But equal pay doesn't mean equal treatment.
Frank Hadas is an engineer at the plant.
You can have them on some dirty, rough job
where there wouldn't be many whites to
complain against them,
but if you try to mix them in the assembly lines
or any place elsewhere whites predominated
and hung their coats touching those of whites,
you know, you couldn't do that.
Many white workers fear losing jobs
to the new black workforce.
Resentment is at the boiling point.
The denial of white privilege
clashing with the ambition of blacks looking for the promised land
inevitably led to an explosion.
The fuse will be lit in the summer of 1919.
There's no official segregation,
but it's everywhere.
Even on the beaches of Lake Michigan.
Whites refuse to sell their houses to blacks.
Homeowners in Hyde Park and Kenwood hold a meeting.
The Negro invasion of the district
is the worst calamity that has struck the city.
Property owners should be notified to stand together
block by block to prevent such invasion.
Sunday, July 27th,
a day that will be etched in history.
17-year-old Eugene Williams
skips church with some friends to go for a swim.
John Harris is with them.
We could swim under water and dive and come up.
Swim, kick, dive and play around.
边游泳 边嬉戏 在那附近玩
A group of black men wander over to the white beach.
They are not welcome.
Don't you come near me like that!
Eugene's raft is also drifting in that direction.
It can only spell trouble.
On a beach in Chicago, tensions are rising.
A white bather throws rocks.
John Harris thinks it's a game.
He'd take a rock and throw it, and we'd duck.
One fella would say,"Look out!" And we would duck it.
But it's no game.
This is racial tension transplanted to city life.
By the time they get Eugene Williams back to the beach,
The police officer on duty is Daniel Callahan.
He refuses to arrest the white man who threw the fatal rock...
but arrests a black man instead.
This is how the Chicago Race Riot of 1919 begins.
Eight bloody days.
23 of them black.
But the violence is just beginning.
Riots erupt in 24 more cities across America.
It's called "The Red Summer."
Many found that the promised land
was not the promise they thought.
The North was better than the South,
but there was not the land of milk and honey.
The divide separating black and white widens.
Harlem in New York.
Paradise Valley in Detroit.
The Hill District in Pittsburgh.
In Chicago, the South Side.
Separate, but not equal.
Black Americans are on the outside looking in.
But black neighborhoods also mean black majorities,
and in America, majority means power.
voters on Chicago's South Side elect Oscar De Priest,
the first black congressman in the North.
80 years later, another Chicago resident
becomes the nation's first black president.
The country is at a turning point.
For the first time,
more Americans live in urban areas than rural.
Cities become a symbol for decadence and danger.
Jazz, cabaret, liquor.
爵士乐 夜总会 酒
It will take the shirt off your back!
It should be whipped out of the land of America
with a whip of scorpions!
Billy Sunday, retired baseball player.
The most famous preacher in the country.
I go to a young man up on the scaffold...
America has a booze problem.
You will affect only those...
At its peak, there's a saloon for every 300 people,
20 times more than today.
50% of all crime involves alcohol.
When you come staggering home cussing right and left...
Billy Sunday isn't the only one
who thinks alcohol is ruining America.
Religious groups rally.
Industrialists say it affects productivity.
Women campaign against drunk men beating up their wives.
Alcohol is the crystal meth of its day.
For many, a total ban is the only solution.
On January 16, 1919,
the 18th amendment to the Constitution is ratified.
Prohibition makes the manufacture
and sale of alcohol illegal.
This period in the early 20th century,
just captured a whole swirl of desire
to kind of rein in what's happening, shape it,
come up with new policies
that will ensure that people will get along,
they will live virtuous lives,
so Prohibition is this grand experiment.
But Prohibition also creates a nation of criminals.
This is one of them.
Willie Carter Sharpe, 26.
They call her "The Rum-Running Queen.",
It's 1928. Prohibition is in its eighth year.
It was the excitement that got me.
We were mostly kids who liked the excitement.
Cars scattering, dashing along the streets.
Behind her is a convoy of moonshine.
Franklin County, Virginia,
is one of the biggest moonshine producers in the country.
Bootleg liquor headed across the county line.
Sharpe's job, decoy, to distract the Feds.
In Franklin County,
99 residents out of 100 are thought to be involved.
Secret stills are everywhere.
Moonshine is flooding across the country,
100 million gallons a year.
Even the President has a private wine cellar.
It seemed so ridiculous.
Anyone would ever tell you
you cannot legislate morality,
you certainly can't stop people from drinking.
People need a drink at the end of the day.
Outrunning the cops is the new extreme sport.
Locals witness Carter Sharpe in action.
I saw her go right through our town.
There was a federal car after her.
They were trying to shoot down her tires.
She was driving at 75 miles an hour.
She got away.
She gets away because of this:
An ordinary car souped up for more horsepower.
A supercharger rams additional air into the cylinders.
The result, America's first muscle cars.
They're so popular,
they kick-start a new national pastime,
Even today, there's a driving maneuver called
"The bootleg turn."
But there's a darker side to bootlegging.
The illegal liquor trade is worth
tens of billions in today's money,
and it's not Willie Carter Sharpe who's in charge.
Organized crime has a stranglehold
stretching across the country.
Lucky Luciano in New York,
Frank "Chee-Chee" DeMayo, Kansas City.
堪萨斯城的法兰克· "奇奇"· 德迈奥
Joseph "Iron Man" Ardizzone in LA.
The Licavoli family, Detroit.
Harry Rosen, Philadelphia.
Charles "King" Solomon, Boston.
And in Chicago, the most notorious gangster of all,
He earns over $100 a minute from illegal alcohol.
That's $1,500 today.
But his luck is about to change.
2122 North Clark Street,
headquarters of Capone's bitter rival,
George "Bugs" Moran.
February 14, 1929.
Two men in police uniform arrive.
Normally the cops leave without
arrests after a quick payoff.
But this isn't a normal day,
and these aren't regular cops.
What happens on Valentine's Day 1929
will change the course of Prohibition in America.
More than half the city's cops are on the take.
In a North Side garage,
seven gangsters are lined up.
They think it's routine.
But today is no shakedown.
Behind them, a group of men arrive,
two carrying Thompson submachine guns.
It's the most notorious slaying in Mob history.
The question is, who's behind the hit?
The police or Al Capone?
Detectives and photographers flood the scene.
This shocking picture
will appear in newspapers around the US.
This is what Prohibition has come to.
America has had enough.
The federal government is forced to act.
Major Calvin Goddard,
methodical, clinical, weapons expert.
Pioneer of a brand-new science, ballistic forensics.
For the first time,
vital clues like bullet casings at a murder scene
can be analyzed.
Goddard's work leads to one of
the first forensic crime labs in America.
It will revolutionize the work of the FBI.
His job, to find out
who is behind the St. Valentine's Day massacre.
When a gun fires, it leaves marks on the bullet casing
as unique as a fingerprint.
By analyzing casings at the murder scene,
Goddard establishes that just two Tommy guns were fired.
Neither is a police gun.
Everything points to Capone.
But convicting Capone of murder won't be easy.
He has an alibi.
He was in Florida at the time.
They'll have to get him on a different charge.
Frank Wilson, accountant.
A very different kind of crime buster.
He's an agent of the Bureau of Internal Revenue in DC.
He's going after Capone on tax evasion.
the 16th amendment gives the federal government
the right to tax personal income.
Even criminals have to pay taxes.
Capone is one of the richest men in the country.
He should be paying 25% tax.
Between 1925 and 1929,
he pays nothing.
The defendant himself had no bank accounts,
kept no book records of activities,
bought no property in his own name.
He conducted all his financial dealings with currency.
To secure a conviction, Wilson needs to prove,
Capone has an income on which he is paying no tax.
He uncovers a ledger,
confiscated from a business called Hawthorne Smoke Shop,
thought to be a Capone front.
It's a detailed record of a gambling business,
but no taxes have been paid on
the income from this business.
If Wilson can establish a direct link with Capone,
he may be able to nail the nation's most notorious criminal
on tax evasion.
Wilson studies the ledger
but can't connect it to Capone.
Then, a breakthrough.
A careful comparison of the handwriting in the ledger
with specimens from various employees of Capone organization
established that the handwriting belonged to
the managers and the cashier of the Hawthorne Smoke Shop.
The handwriting proves
Capone's connection to the business.
It's the vital evidence.
On October 18, 1931,
Al Capone is found guilty of tax evasion,
and sentenced to 11 years in prison.
Frank Wilson found out that he was not paying his taxes.
It's an odd thing,
this man who had done all these other things,
ordered the execution of lots of people,
was responsible for the murder of people,
and they get him on tax evasion.
Tax is no small matter.
Prohibition has been a disaster.
It has massively increased the stranglehold of organized crime.
It's cost the government billions in lost tax revenue.
Gangsters like Capone
have become rich at America's expense,
but now more than ever,
the government needs cash.
The stock-market crash in 1929
has brought the economy to its knees.
The government is broke.
A levy on alcohol is a solution.
On December 5, 1933, Prohibition is abolished...
killed by the need for cold, hard cash.
It's an extraordinary U-turn.
The only time in history
an amendment to the Constitution is repealed.
The three decades of economic boom, fueled by oil, cars
历经三十年 由石油 汽车
and the rapid growth of megacities
are now over.
The country has hard times ahead.