The Civil War rages. The minie ball is the great equalizer on the battlefield. The formidable Confederate army cannot match the Union's mastery of technology; railroads, supply lines and the telegram become new weapons in a modern war. 内战爆发。迷你弹是战场上最伟大的均衡器。强大的同盟军无法比拟的技术联盟的掌握；铁路，电源线和电话成为现代战争中的新武器。
The North against the South.
Brother against brother.
The Civil War is the bloodiest in American history.
Victory will take far more than brute firepower on the battlefield.
Technology, communications, logistics.
技术 通讯 后勤
It's what happens behind the front lines
that will ultimately decides this battle for America's future.
We are pioneers...and trailblazers.
We fight for freedom.
We transform our dreams into the truth.
Our struggles will become a nation.
1862, the Civil War is at its height.
North and South,
locked in a bitter conflict for the future of America.
A new kind of bullet
has brought this war to a terrible deadlock,
bringing death on a scale never previously seen in warfare.
Here at a metal works in Springfield, Illinois,
molten lead is beginning its journey,
becoming a lethal instrument of destruction.
The bullet known as the minie ball.
This crude piece of lead is the primary reason
for the unprecedented levels of slaughter in this war.
Invented in France. It's an ounce in weight and a half inch across.
迷你弹发明于法国 重一盎司 直径半英寸
One person can cast 3,000 minie balls an hour.
Each one of these simple bullets
can rip through a man's body in a fraction of a second.
The minie ball is used by North and South alike.
Demand for this killer bullet runs so high
that an entire industry springs up
supplying minie balls to the front line
In total, the North makes over half a billion minie balls,
ready to be fired from
the 2 million muskets supplied to its men.
In many ways,
the Civil War was the first modern war
because it was the first war that took place
after the Industrial Revolution had begun to transform our country.
It will take over 33 hours for a bullet in this box
to travel the 800 plus miles to the battlefield
ready to find its target.
The new musket is much faster to reload
than traditional weapons.
Load the gun powder,
ram down the bullet,
and it's ready to fire.
Imagine warfare where your ability to load a musket
faster than the guy with the other musket
would determine if you lived or die.
Groove on the inside of the barrel, rifling,
spin the ball towards its target.
The improved accuracy and range are a deadly combination.
One second -- everything's great
and the next second, your buddy's head is gone
or his arm is flying off.
You don't want to know what a soft metal musket ball does
when it enters the human body.
On impact, the bullet flattens out.
bone shattered into splinters
causing further damage to muscle and tissue.
More often than not,
the result of a direct hit is death.
but for all the minie balls technological edge,
the army still uses traditional military tactics.
What made it specifically tragic was
modern technology meeting much more ancient tactics,
so the death rates were truly appalling.
The troops still face one another openly
with lines across the battlefield.
But the minie ball is accurate over a range of 600 yards.
Easily spaning this distance.
And it can be reloaded
eight times faster than a traditional weapon.
The effects are catastrophic.
The kill rate increases dramatically
compared to previously wars.
Across the battlefield the results are carnage.
Blood and death on a previously unseen scales.
They killed each other in droves in lines and in piles.
他们相互残杀 尸体成群 成排 成堆
Soldier Alexander Hunter writes.
One lay on his face with his body almost in two parts.
Another was shot just as he was taking aim,
one eye was still open while the other was closed,
one arm extended in the position of holding his rifle
which laid beside on the ground.
The troops on both sides
must live in the middle of this untold deafen suffering.
Horatio Chapman, records his experience in his diary.
The dead in some places were piled upon each other
and the groans and moans of the wounded
were truly saddening to hear.
Some were just alive and gasping, but unconscious
others were mortally wounded
and were conscious of the fact that they could not live long.
By the time of the North's final victory,
over 600,000 men on both sides are dead.
sum 2% of the entire US population.
In current population terms,
that's the equivalent of 6 million people.
Almost half of the dead remain unidentified.
The fear of dying forgot on the battlefield
leave soldiers for the first time
to begin painting their names and unions on their uniforms.
These crude early versions of the dog tag
will make it possible to identify their bodies after they are killed.
For the first time, America's growing postal service,
means soldiers can write to their loved ones from the front.
With none of today's military censorship,
it allows soldiers like Robert Stiles
to relay the terrifying realities of life on the front line.
The sights and smells that assailed us
were simply indescribable.
Corpse swollen to twice their original size.
Some of them actually burst sunder
with the pressure of foul gases and vapours.
Fueling this carnage lies the deep political animosity
that has led to this war.
In the bitter conflict that
has pitted as"brother against brother",
the South has determined to defend its independence
and the system of slavery.
But the North will not allow it to leave the Union of States.
We fought and lost
hundreds of thousands of men on both sides
fighting for what they believe is right.
The unholy alliance of new weapons and outdated battle tactics,
means the body count on an industrial scale.
The war is locked in a bloody stalemate.
Neither side can land a decisive blow.
In this bitter war of attrition,
victory will come to the last man standing.
August 1862, over a year into the war.
General Robert E Lee's Confederate Army,
is readying to launch a wide ranging assault ,
against Union forces in Virginia.
these men are fighting on their home turf,
and are ready to die for Southern independence
and traditions, and its rural way of life.
Its prosperity is built around a simple crop--
Known as white gold,
the South accounts for
two thirds of the world's supply of cotton.
And it brings extraordinary wealth to the Southern states.
but its wealth built on the backs of slaves.
Now Lincoln's victory at the ballot box
threatens this traditional way of life,
the slavery it is built on.
Rather than submit to Northern rule,
the South decides to fight.
They want a separate nation.
General Rober E Lee takes command
at the head of the newly formed army of Northen Virginia.
Lee, a brilliant graduate of the elite Westpoint Academy
is already a veteran of the Mexican War.
Highly regarded for his effectiveness on the battlefield.
Lee could intuit the battlefield
in a way that almost resembles Rommel in
World War II, or Patton,
and as a result, he could sort of almost sense
where the place would be to take the gamble
and where to hit.
Manassas Virginia, 1862,
confederal troops gather ahead
of the second battle of Bull Run.
Lee's forces are heavily outnumbered.
But this Virginia woodland
is home territory for these volunteer troops
known like the back of their hand.
Rigid training and strict discipline
has turned them into a formidable fighting force.
If you've been a betting man back then,
you would have bet the South would have won.
The South only had to hold its territory,
the North had to come and take it away,
the North had to be the occupying force
which is far harder to do.
At Bull Run, Lee easily demonstrates his force's superiority.
In one engagement lasting just 10 minutes,
the yankee 5th New York regiment loses more men
than any other regiment during the entire Civil War.
All tolled, Lee's men kill over 1700 Union soldiers.
Determination and local knowledge
give the South their greatest victory in the war to date.
But Lee and his commanders
have underestimated the nature of this conflict...
and of their opponent,
President Abraham Lincoln.
Because Lincoln is fighting a totally new kind of war,
and the Southern adversaries just don't get it.
A packed train speeds on its way south,
ready to replenish the Union Army with fresh troops and supplies.
Lieutenant George Benedict writes home.
We were stowed away in freight cars
and started out of the city.
The train took 600 other troops besides our regiment,
and numbered 34 heavily loaded cars.
The railroad, one of Lincoln's hidden weapons in this war.
In one key operation ordered directly by the President
25,000 fresh troops
were sent on a 1200-mile journey to the South.
By road it would take over two months.
By rail, it will take these men just seven days.
Following its introduction in the 1830's,
America's rail infrastructure has
gradually spread its tentacles across the country.
Lincoln realizes it can revolutionize the speed of troop deployments.
He strikes a deal with the rail owners
to put the North railroad network under government control.
It turns the railroad into a weapon of war.
Instead of armies being limited
to the speed at which they can march,
all of a sudden, you had armies being able to move
to up to the front by rail.
And more importantly, supplies.
Supplies and troops
pour out of the North toward the battle front.
Some busy lines carry 800 tons of supplies a day,
the equivalent of 80 railroad cars.
In Lincoln's hands, the 24,000 miles of railroad tracks in the North
becomes an arm of his war machine.
But the South has a far smaller network.
Just 9,000 miles at the start of the war
and it remains under private control.
In the four years the war lasts,
the North adds 4,000 miles of new track to it's network
against just 400 miles in the South.
This inability to coordinate rail supplies
will prove disastrous for the South.
Even though they're just 30 miles from their capital in Richmond.
In the winter of 1863, poor rail links
mean Southern troops in Virginia starve.
For all their brilliance and determination in battle,
the South simply lackd the logistics
to deliver a decisive blow.
And it isn't simply rail.
Lincoln realizes that victory
depends on mobilizing the entire industrial might of the North
behind the war effort.
Production of clothing in the North doubles during the conflict.
Pitchfork manufacturers start making swords,
while the number of patents doubles in the course of the war.
Manufacturing, technology, infrastructure.
制造业 技术产业 基础设施
It will change the face of America.
For the first time in history,
industry is put behind the war effort,
an approach to conflict
that America will exploit
in the First and Second World Wars.
It is the beginning of a new, integrated economy.
It will be the hallmark of the modern age.
In a building just across the road from the White House
is a small room.
It will become Lincoln's nerve center in this war.
And at its heart, a simple device
that will transform how this war is fought and won:
The invention of Morse Code in 1844
turns the telegraph into America's first tool of mass communication.
Quickly encoded, the basic system of dots and dashes
is ideal for brief messages.
Like Twitter today,
it needs just seconds to send them and transcribe them.
Where messengers previously took days
on horse back, over hundreds of miles
and across every kind of terrain,
now the country's 50,000 mile telegraph network
means communication is almost instantaneous.
As telegraph poles snake out alongside the railroad lines,
this vast country begins to shrink.
It will transform the nature of this war,
as information and decisions
can flow backwards and forwards, at lightning speed.
It became kind of the early version of e-mail.
Suddenly it was possible
to get a message to somebody from St. Louis
you know, to get a message to New York
in a shockingly short amount of time.
Lincoln immediately realizes
the telegraph's potential as a weapon of war.
He insists on the installation of telegraph lines
directly into the War Department.
And he quickly acts to
place all telegraph facilities in the Union under military control.
The Telegraph Office becomes the central hub
of Lincoln's war operation. His command and control center.
林肯在这里组织 指挥 控制战事
He even takes to sleeping here at busy times.
The Telegraph Office manager, David Homer Bates,
describes how Lincoln obsesses
over every scrap of news from the front:
sometimes reading dispatches word by word
as they are deciphered.
Lincoln's habit was to go immediately to the drawer
each time he came into our room,
and read over the telegraphs beginning at the top
until he came to the one he had seen on his previous visit.
The North's telegraph network
spreads its tentacles far and wide,
sucking information back to Lincoln
and his commanders in Washington.
It gives him a vast strategic overview,
providing him an unrivaled insight
into his commanders' tactical thinking.
Lincoln himself was able to stay on top of,
developments in the course of individual battles.
That had never happened before.
To the irritation of his generals,
it even allows him to issue his own direct orders,
telling them how to fight.
In one campaign,
with General Lee's forces threatening Washington,
Lincoln responds by telegraphing direct orders to his generals.
The exposed position of General Banks
makes his immediate relief a point of paramount importance.
You are therefore directed by the President
to move against Jackson at Harrisonburg.
This movement must be made immediately.
In the course of the war,
Lincoln sends almost 1000 telegrams from the small office.
But the South never grasps the potential of the telegraph
in creating a centralized command and control system.
It means Southern generals like Lee
must plan their battles without that kind of strategic overview.
As the war continues,
Lincoln brings down the hammer of his war machine.
Lines of communication and supplies,
manpower and firepower, are all marshalled
to deliver a blow after blow to the Confederate Army.
But the South,
bolstered by the belief in the rightness of its cause
doggedly refuses to give in.
As a result, the death toll just keeps rising.
At Antietam in 1862,
6,000 are killed.
Over four times as many as during world War II's D-Day landings.
The carnage will trigger a revolution in battlefield medicine.
3/4 of all operations conducted by army surgeons
during the Civil War are amputations.
Letters from surgeon William Watson
record what these battlefield ERs were like.
Day before yesterday I performed 14 amputations
without leaving the table.
I do not exaggerate when I say
I have performed at the least calculation, 50 amputations.
There are so many severely wounded to the joints.
There are so many operations yet to be performed.
Surgeon Theodore Dimon describes
the hideous wounds left by weapons like the Minie ball.
The shattering, splintering, and splitting
of a long bone by the impact of a Minie ball
所造成的骨骼粉碎 破裂 撕烂
is both remarkable and frightening.
An experienced surgeon
can hack off a limb in just ten minutes.
Ether and chloroform are used as anesthetics.
If a bullet doesn't kill you, then infection can.
Gangrene is the greatest killer.
Deprived of oxygen,
wounds become an ideal breeding ground for clostridium,
a bacteria that releases a poisonous toxin destroying tissue.
Death can follow quickly.
Approximately 60,000 amputations are performed during the Civil War,
more than in any other war America has fought in.
Twice as many soldiers died from infected wounds and disease
as on the battlefield.
This unprecedented carnage
forces a complete rethink of traditional battlefield medicine.
Looking after the well-being of soldiers
becomes as central to the war effort
as the supply of guns and ammunition.
Large numbers of women sign up as battlefield nurses.
One of them is Clara Barton.
Help me, please. A saw?
Clara Barton is untrained and unpaid.
When she starts, most nurses are men.
It is a menial occupation.
The remedies she proposes for the care of the wounded are simple,
but revolutionary in their effect.
They want food, clothing, shelter, medicines,
他们需要食物 衣服 住处 药物
and a few calm, practical persons to administer them.
She insists the injured have a ready supply of clean bandages.
First aid, the sorting of the wounded with the most serious cases first.
The Civil War brings in a series of innovations
that form the basis of battlefield medicine to this day.
20,000 women sign on as nurses during the war.
Clara Barton herself goes on to found the American Red Cross.
Standards of hygiene begin to
dramatically improve with the discovery of bromine.
This caustic chemical is effective
against the bacteria that cause gangrene.
As a result, nearly 3/4 of amputees survive surgery
and gangrene becomes rare by the war's end.
With the war dragging on without a clear end in sight...
Lincoln is increasingly forced to fight on a very different front-
the war for public opinion.
The spread of portable cameras
means for the first time gory images of the battlefield
can now reach every home.
While these simple cameras ruled out dramatic action scenes,
they're ideal for capturing the gruesome after math of battle.
As many as 1500 photographers flood the battlefield.
Their images are sold widely to members of the public
for as little as 25 cents.
It was war photography coming back from the Civil War
that captured it in a way that made it real
and made people recognize
the really extraordinary unprecedented violence.
America's growing newspaper mass media
reproduces simple woodcuts of the images.
More than 200 correspondents cover the war
filing over 100 million words of copy.
This deluge of information about the war
ensures the grim reality of the conflict
is seared into the public consciousness.
Never again will politicians be able to fight wars
without public support.
The war means a soldier
is five times more likely to die than a civilian.
Where families used to grieve for the dead at home,
now men die on the battlefield.
It forces a fundamental shift in the ritual surrounding death.
Matt Botage dies on the battlefield in Virginia,
yet his family in Boston
can still say good-bye to their son killed 500 miles away.
Even though it has taken a week
for his body to travel from the battlefield,
his father described how it is free from signs of decomposition.
So the marks of closely contested battle
was still upon the face,
the features were placid as if he were sleeping.
That's because of the new technique known as embalming.
Chemicals like arsenic and zinc chloride are injected in the corpse
to hold the natural process of decay.
The business of death, the preservation of bodies
turns undertakers into overnight millionaires.
One undertaker boasts:
I would be glad to prepare private soldiers.
They were worth a $5 bill a piece.
But Lord bless you, a colonel pays 100.
不过上帝保佑 上校的话 收费100
And a brigadier general, 200.
If you've got the money,
all sorts of new techniques are available.
Airtight coffins and embalming are most popular.
And for the wealthiest,
even elaborated refrigerated coffins packed with ice.
The war drags on.
Lincoln is determined to end it, and abolish slavery.
In September, 1862,
he gives the South an ultimatum - rejoin the union.
He threatens to forcibly liberate their slaves if they refuse.
But the South, having tasted independence,
does not want to rejoin a union where slavery would be at risk.
they reject the ultimatum.
Lincoln is in no mood to negotiate.
If the South won't free their slaves, he will do it himself.
For white Southerners,
it was a confirmation that their thoughts about Lincoln all along
that he was, in fact, somebody who was bent on destroying
what they thought was the Southern way of life.
In the North, in a sense
it gave people a different understanding of what the war was about.
On January 1st, 1863,
Lincoln issues a proclamation
abolishing slavery in the rebellious Southern states,
Thanks to the telegraph, the news quickly spreads.
On the 4th day of January, in the year of our Lord, 1863.
Lincoln had totally grown
to where he said not only should blacks not be slaves,
they should be treated as equal citizens
with full enfranchisement, right to vote and right to participate.
All persons held as slaves shall be then, henceforth and forever free.
In the wake of Lincoln's emancipation of the slaves,
Black American soldiers rush to enlist for the Union.
Almost 200,000 sign up by the end of the war.
General James Blunt describes their skill as fighters.
I never saw such fighting
as was done by the negro regiment.
They make better soldiers in every respect
than any other troops I have ever had under my command.
The Emancipation Proclamation changes the dynamics of the war.
The Union army becomes a force for liberation,
now fighting to end slavery.
They understood that saving the union
would give them some sense of freedom, some sense of dignity.
It was the dignity that I'm a soldier.
I'm not just a servant. I have a uniform.
I have stripes. I am somebody.
Lincoln follows the Proclamation with his master stroke.
His address in 1863,
dedicating America's first national cemetery for soldiers at Gettysburg,
is perhaps the single most famous piece of political rhetoric in history.
Four score and seven years ago
our fathers brought forth upon this nation
conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition
that all men are created equal.
That we here highly resolve
that these deaths shall not have died in vain.
That this nation under God
shall have a new birth of freedom,
and that government of the people, by the people and for the people
民有 民治 民享的政府
shall not perish from this earth.
It is an emotional thing to think about
people sacrificing, giving their lives for an ideal.
And it's Lincoln at his absolute best.
The genius, the simplicity that conveys a great amount.
It's spiritual in a way, it's a hymn to America,
and it's the hymn to the possibilities
and the great sacrifices to this country.
But in 1864, the war remains deadlocked.
With an election looming,
and a challenge coming from those
who want to negotiate a peace with the South,
Lincoln knows he needs to land a decisive blow.
At some point somebody gets tired.
Somebody blinks. Somebody makes a mistake.
And when you're talking about war, that mistake,
Lincoln puts the North's entire industrial might
behind one final push.
The man who will lead the charge from Chattanooga to Atlanta,
His orders: to stop for nothing.
I would make this war as severe as possible
and show no symptoms of tiring until the South begs for mercy.
Advancing under the cover of night,
Sherman's march is sustained by
one of the greatest logistical operations yet seen in this conflict.
Sherman knows he needs to throw everything he's got
at the Confederate Army.
While he uses his own supply lines to maximum effect,
he destroys those of the South,
ripping up their railroad and bending it beyond use.
In one day, the North's supply lines replace 200,000 bullets.
While the South is left scavenging on the battlefield
for spent rounds, food, even old boots.
Sherman calls it total war.
A scorched earth approach becomes the trademark of modern warfare.
Finally, with Atlanta under siege,
Confederate forces set fire to their own munitions stores.
before abandoning their city to the Union soldiers.
Sherman's tactics of total war have won out.
His victory helps secure Lincoln's election in the fall.
With Atlanta in ruins, he just keeps going,
now launching what will be his final assault:
The March to the Sea.
In a 19th century equivalent of Shock and Awe,
62,000 Union soldiers wreak
a 60-mile-wide path of destruction across Georgia,
from Atlanta to the coast of Savannah.
Supply lines are cut.
Villages are sacked and crops torched.
Anything of military value is destroyed.
Within six months,
General Lee has tendered the Confederate Army's surrender.
The rebellion is over.
The South will have to submit to the Union
and bring an end to slavery.
By the act of winning,
the North both validated freedom
and validated the industrial model.
And so you have an American confidence.
An American sense of achievement.
An American willingness to go out around the world.
For all the Confederacy's commitment,
its inferior logistical infrastructure
has been no match for the North's unstoppable war machine.
Its industrial heartland,
its growing network of railroads,
its telegraph network,
all bring victory to the North.
Within a week, Lincoln lies dead from an assassin's bullet,
but America has pulled back from the brink.
The nation is once again united.
And out of that unity
now goes a modern industrialized economy
that will reach right across this great continent.