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美国:我们的故事 第二集 Revolution/革命

美国:我们的故事 第二集 Revolution/革命

The colonies declare independence, taking on the might of the British Empire. Washington's army is near defeat, but new weapons and battle tactics turn the tide. Forged through revolution, a new nation is born. 殖民地宣布独立,在大英帝国的可能。华盛顿的军队是附近击败,但是新的武器和战术反败为胜。通过伪造的革命,一个新的国家是出世。

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英汉双语对照剧本

A ragtag bunch of rebels
起义军的杂牌部队

faces the greatest military superpower of the day.
面对当时最强大的军事力量

It's a war they never should have won.
这本是一场毫无胜算的战争

This is the secret history of how they did it.
他们之所以胜出 秘密在于

Daring.
破釜沉舟

Leadership.
领导有方

New ways of fighting
出奇制胜

and true American grit.
和实实在在的美国精神

We are pioneers...
我们是前锋

and trailblazers.
也是先驱

We fight... for freedom.
我们为自由而战

We transform our dreams into the truth.
我们将梦想付诸现实

Our struggles... will become a nation.
我们的奋斗将换来一个国家的新生

New York City.
纽约

Gateway to North America.
通向北美的必经之路

Today the financial capital of the world.
如今已是世界金融的中心

Population: 8 Million people.
人口多达8百万

In 1776, this is a city of just 20,000.
但在1776年 这里的人口不过2万

It will soon become the battleground
随着战事的蔓延 这里即将成为

for the biggest land invasion in American history.
美国历史上最大规模抵抗外来入侵的战场

Three miles from Wall Street,
距离华尔街3英里

where 23rd Street crosses Lexington Avenue today
在今天第23大街与莱克星顿街的交汇处

the Rebels dig in to defend New York at Kips Bay.
起义军为固守纽约 正在基普斯湾挖掘战壕

Commander of the Rebel Army is General George Washington.
乔治·华盛顿作为总司令指挥着这支起义军

He has already driven the British out of Boston.
他曾出奇兵将英军逐出波士顿

A surprise victory against superior forces.
但一场以弱胜强的胜利

But they'll be back.
并不能阻止他们卷土重来

The hour is fast approaching
考验我们的时候到了

on which the honor and success of this army,
我军的荣誉 国家的安危

and the safety of our bleeding country depend.
全部落在了我们的肩上

Joseph Plumb Martin enlisted in the Rebel forces at 15
约瑟夫·普拉姆·马丁 15岁时应征入伍

inspired to fight
在独立自由的激励下

under Washington's command.
成为了华盛顿麾下的一名士兵

A farm boy, he joins thousands of untrained volunteers.
农民出身的他 加入了这支未受训的民兵部队

Our Revolutionary Army was quite something.
我们的革命军确实很了不起

It was-- in a nation that wasn't really a nation yet,
在当时还未建国的美国

just starting out,
发展壮大

and we took on the greatest superpower of the time.
但我们的对手却是无比强大的日不落帝国

Washington's ragtag troops
华盛顿所率领的乌合之众

are about to face
要抗击的是

the best-equipped and most powerful fighting force in the world.
当时全世界装备最精良 战斗力最强的军队

June 29th.
6月29日

45 British warships mass off Staten Island.
45艘英国战舰向斯塔滕岛进发

Bearing down on New York City,
浩浩荡荡向纽约逼近

the ultimate war machine of its day, the British ship-of-the-line.
英国海军舰队 那个时代的终极武器

Each ship is made from over 2,000 century-old trees.
每艘战舰都由2000余棵百年老树造就

Each carries hundreds more soldiers to the fight against the colonies.
各载着数百名士兵 前去镇压殖民地反抗

And each is armed with up to 64 heavy cannons
每艘战舰还配有64门重型火炮

capable of hurling a 24-pound cannonball at the speed of sound,
能够以声速射出24磅的炮弹

delivering it to targets over a mile away.
且射程可达1英里

One ship-of-the-line costs
建造一队战舰所花费的成本

the equivalent of a modern aircraft carrier.
不亚于当今的航空母舰

Another 350 British ships are racing across the Atlantic to join them.
另有350艘战船正飞速穿越大西洋前来增援

The British want to terrify the Rebels into submission.
英国本想以此吓退起义军

Instead, they inspire them to resist.
却没想到 这反而激起了他们的斗志

On July 2nd, there's a crisis meeting in Philadelphia.
7月2日 在费城召开了一个紧急会议

50 delegates elected to the Continental Congress from the 13 colonies
50名代表13州参加大陆会议的代表

hold an emergency session.
进行了紧急磋商

They include radicals like Ben Franklin,
会议成员中的激进分子 如本·富兰克林

Thomas Jefferson
托马斯·杰斐逊

and John Adams.
和约翰·亚当斯

What they're debating is nothing less than high treason--
他们主张发动一场不亚于叛国的革命

total independence from Britain.
脱离英王统治 取得独立

The penalty is death.
不成功便成仁

We are in the midst of a revolution,
我们正身处一场有史以来

the most complete in the history of the world.
最为彻底的革命之中

It's the birth of American democracy.
这场革命促使了美国民主的诞生

We have to expect a great expanse of blood to obtain it.
这场革命需要我们为之抛头颅洒热血

Some don't believe the Rebels stand a chance.
然而保守派却认为革命毫无希望

We are about to brave the storm in a skiff made of paper.
我们这无异于以卵击石

But the doubters are outnumbered nearly five to one.
持怀疑态度者最终以一比五被否决

On July 4, 1776,
1776年7月4日

the delegates ratify a document that will change the world,
大陆会议通过了一项将改变世界历史的文件

the Declaration of Independence.
《独立宣言》

"We hold these truths to be self-evident,
"我们认为下面这些真理是不言而喻的"

"that all men are created equal,
"人人生而平等"

"that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights."
"造物主赋予他们若干不可剥夺的权利"

Now think about that.
试想一下

They're saying that your rights come not from the king,
他们试图告诉人们 人民的权利并非国王赏赐

not from the government,
也非政府施舍

your rights come from God
而是上帝赋予

and furthermore, they can't be taken away from you.
并且 这些权利是不能被夺去的

They're unalienable.
不可剥夺

Every group: blacks, women, gays--
无论黑人 女人 还是同性恋者

everybody looks to the Declaration
都仰望着《独立宣言》

as a way of saying we are Americans, too.
告诉世人 我们也是独立自主的美国人

So the Declaration is the American creed.
《独立宣言》才是我们唯一的信条

"that among these are Life"
"其中包括生命权"

"Liberty"
"自由权"

and the pursuit of Happiness."
"和追求幸福的权利"

You cannot help but be stirred when you read those words.
当你读到这些文字 便会不由自主地心潮澎湃

And you feel the excitement of being on the cusp of something so profound.
你能够感受到站在历史浪尖的无比兴奋

We can be free.
自由也可以属于我们

Now soldiers like Plumb Martin have something worth fighting for.
现在 士兵们终于有了为之浴血的理由

On July 12th, two British warships open fire on New York City.
7月12日 两艘英国战舰向纽约开火

It must have been quite a shock because
炮火一定震惊了整个纽约

New York, up to that point, was pretty quiet city.
此前 这里一直安静祥和

It was a business city.
这里原是贸易之都

So you had significant support for the Rebels
英王的残暴惹怒了人民 他们纷纷支持革命

but also significant support for the people
也有不少人将战争归咎于革命军

who were still loyal to the king.
继续效忠英王

A month later, Joseph Reed, secretary to George Washington,
一个月后 乔治·华盛顿的秘书约瑟夫·里德

tracks the British fleet massing off New York.
从望远镜里发现了正在向纽约逼近的英国舰队

Over 400 ships,
400余艘战船

the largest British Naval task force until D-day.
诺曼底登陆前 英国海军最大规模的特遣部队

32,000 British troops
32000名英国海军

prepare to storm Manhattan Island.
时刻准备着强攻曼哈顿岛

They outnumber Patriot forces two to one.
这一数量是革命军两倍

Just five of the biggest British ships carry more firepower
仅仅五艘大战舰所承载的火力

than all the Patriot guns in the city.
就超过了纽约城中所有军火的总和

Reed is awed by the sight.
里德被眼前的局势吓住了

When I look down and see the prodigious fleet they have collected,
当我看到海面上敌军巨大的战舰时

I cannot help being astonished
我禁不住错愕

that a people should come 3,000 miles
居然有人跋涉3000英里

at such risk, trouble and expense
冒着生命风险 付出巨大损耗

to rob, plunder and destroy another people
仅仅为了掠夺与摧毁一群

because they will not lay their lives and fortune at their feet.
不愿被奴役的人们

It's the biggest attack on New York City
这是纽约受过的最惨重的打击

until September 11, 2001.
直到9.11

But the Rebels will stand and fight.
但起义军们仍誓死抵抗

The difference for me was that
在我看来 双方的不同之处在于心态

the British Army was fighting for a king
英国人是为国王而战

and the Americans were fighting for their lives.
可美国人却是为生存而战

Plumb Martin is one of 500 men standing guard at Kips Bay.
普拉姆·马丁是守卫基普斯湾的500民兵之一

Have a look.
快看

The first thing that saluted our eyes
首先映入眼帘的

was all four ships at anchor within musket shot of us.
是四艘停泊在我们步枪射程内的战船

"The Phoenix".
"凤凰号"

I could read her name as distinctly
我能清楚地看到她的名字

as though I was directly underneath her stern.
仿佛能感到她的船艄就在我头上晃动

Pull out your gun!
拔出枪来

The assault begins.
攻击开始了

September 1776.
1776年9月

New York is under fire.
纽约城硝烟弥漫

In one hour...
短短1小时

2,500 British cannonballs
2500枚英国炮弹

smash the Rebel defenses at Kips Bay.
便让基普斯湾防线灰飞烟灭

4,000 British troops storm Manhattan.
4000名英国海军拿下了曼哈顿

Tough and battle-hardened,
英军强壮而身经百战

a British redcoat has six times more combat experience
英国士兵的实战经验

than a Patriot Army recruit.
至少是革命新军的六倍

Get back in your lines!
保持阵型

Washington watches his army collapse.
华盛顿眼睁睁地看着自己军队溃散

Hold the line, men!
保持阵型 战士们

They retreat along an ancient Native American path
他们沿着一条原住民的小道撤退

that will later be known as Broadway.
这条小道便是日后的百老汇大道

September 20th.
9月20日

New York, now in British hands, burns.
纽约落入英国人的掌控中 一片火海

No one knows who starts the fire...
没人知道谁放了这把火

but over two days it destroys a quarter of the city.
但两天后 纽约的四分之一被这场大火焚毁

It gives you a sense of the people who wanted to be free,
这次溃败让大家看到 为了争取自由

how much they were willing to endure.
人民愿意付出怎样的代价

The city being burned, the city being occupied.
整座城市被焚毁 被占领

Gives you a sense of how much they wanted freedom.
也吓不退人民争取自由的决心

More than 3,000 Patriot POWs are thrown into
3000余战俘被关进

prison ships in New York Harbor.
停靠在纽约港的囚船中

The most notorious is
最臭名昭著的

the HMS Jersey, nicknamed "Hell."
是被称为"地狱"的泽西皇家舰队监狱

One prisoner, Robert Sheffield,
一个名叫罗伯特·谢菲尔德的战俘逃出

escaped to tell the tale.
道出了实情

The air was so foul that at times a lamp could not be kept burning,
空气阴湿腐臭 有时甚至难以点着油灯

by reason of which
有这种气味是因为

the bodies were not missed until they had been dead ten days.
除非死了十天以上 尸体才会被拖走

Nine in ten prisoners die.
九成的战俘相继死去

There is a memorial over in Brooklyn
布鲁克林有一个纪念馆

to those that died on British prison ships in New York Harbor.
纪念在纽约港英军船监中牺牲的

Thousands of Americans.
数千名烈士

Over the course of the war,
在整场战争中

12,000 Patriot POWs will die in the prison ships,
12000余名战俘在此牺牲

three times more than are killed in battle.
数量是战死疆场烈士的三倍

The loss of New York is Washington's
纽约失守让身为总司令的华盛顿

first defeat as commander in chief.
第一次尝到了败北的滋味

The overwhelming British force crushes the Rebel Army.
势不可挡的英国军队完败革命军

Washington's only hope now
华盛顿目前唯一的希望

rests hundreds of miles inland,
是撤退到数百英里的内陆

with men the British know nothing about.
一片英国人一无所知的土地

A new type of soldier with new weapons...
在这里 有新的士兵 新型武器

and new rules of war.
与新的作战方法

Let's go kill us some redcoats.
去杀几个英国兵消遣一下

By June, a new British Army of 8,000 men
6月 英国增兵8000

heads south from loyalist Canada.
从效忠国加拿大向南进发

Its objective:
他们的目的只有一个

Kill off the American Revolution once and for all.
一次性将美国革命彻底扼杀

They're led by General John Burgoyne.
他们由约翰·伯戈因将军率领

An aristocrat, politician, and art lover,
这位是一位出身显赫的政治家 热爱艺术

he's also one of the best cavalry officers in the British military.
他还是英国军中最英武的骑兵指挥官之一

Burgoyne pushes south, following the Hudson River.
伯戈因率军向南逼近 沿哈德逊河行军

His army is like a mobile city.
他的部队犹如一座移动的城市

The redcoats are accompanied by 2,000 servants, wives, and mistresses.
随行者有2000余名仆人 妻子甚至情妇

200 supply wagons carry 84 tons of powder and shot,
200辆补给车装载着84吨弹药

as well as silver and porcelain tableware for the officers' meals.
当然还有各种精致的餐具 供军官用餐

Burgoyne's plan is simple.
伯戈因的计划很简单

He's traveling from St. John's in Canada
从加拿大圣约翰斯进发

170 miles south to Saratoga,
南下170英里到达萨拉托加

deep in the interior of the New York Colony.
深入纽约殖民地内部

Then, he'll link up with the victorious British Army in New York City,
然后和在纽约大获全胜的英军会师

cutting the colonies into two parts.
将殖民地一分为二

But the American frontier becomes the British Army's worst enemy.
但美国的偏远地区却成了英军最大的敌人

The problem is
问题在于

they're in what we might call a counter insurgency kind of campaign,
在这场所谓的平反叛乱战役中

where their passage through the land
他们一路扫荡

and the offense that they give to farmers
农民怨声载道

creates enemies wherever they go.
所到之处树敌无数

Now Washington unleashes revolutionary new tactics
这次华盛顿发动了革命性的新战术

and a totally new type of soldier.
动用了一支完全不同的部队

Men who learned their skills on the frontier.
他们在荒山野岭中习得战斗技巧

So this army came together--
这支军队众志成城

an army of militia, an army of woodsmen, an army of sharpshooters,
是一支义勇军之队 猎人之队 神枪手之队

and we didn't play by the rules.
而且我们不按常理出牌

British redcoats are trained for open battlefields.
英军向来只训练正面对决

Now they face Rebel sharpshooters hidden in dense cover.
如今他们面临的叛军却是埋伏在丛林的神枪手

Leading them, Daniel Morgan.
统领他们的是丹尼尔·摩根

Hard drinker, gambler, brawler.
十足的酒鬼 赌棍 拳击手

And now the colonel of an elite corps of 500 riflemen.
如今却是一支五百名步枪手精锐部队的上校

He was a self-made man
他是一个白手起家的硬汉

and he was a-- although not educated at a great school--
尽管没有接受过良好的教育

was a smart guy, was a tough guy,
但他绝顶聪明 坚韧不拔

and was ready and willing to step up when the time called.
时刻准备着在关键时刻挺身而出

He was the perfect guy to show up at the perfect time.
正所谓 时势造英雄

Burgoyne's route takes him through dense forest
伯戈因的行军路线让他深陷丛林之中

over five times larger than all of England.
五个英国加起来也没有这里的丛林大

Trees once intended to build British ships...
一度用于建造英国船队的树木

now become Rebel roadblocks.
如今却摇身变作奋起反抗的路障

The British are sitting ducks.
英军现在是坐以待毙

Their advance slows to just a mile a day.
推进速度降至每天一英里

The march south becomes a six-week nightmare.
南征之路转眼成为六周的梦魇

The sharpshooters know the land...
神枪手们对地形了如指掌

and have technology on their side.
并且占据技术优势

Morgan's men are armed with American long rifles.
摩根的士兵都武装了美国长管步枪

They're light weight, with a slender barrel at least 40 inches long
属轻型步枪 枪管细长 至少有40英寸

and fire a 50-caliber shot a half-inch wide.
子弹口径50 射程偏差0.5英寸

Based on a German hunting weapon,
以德国猎枪为原型

the guns have a unique American innovation...
这种枪结合了美国独特的创新

grooves inside the barrel that spin the shot,
枪管内的凹槽使子弹旋转

stabilizing it, giving it deadly accuracy.
可以稳定弹道 提高命中率

Armed with this rifle,
装备上这种步枪

Patriot marksman can hit a target 250 yards away,
爱国的神枪手们可以击中250码外的目标

more than three times the average distance of a modern FBI sniper shot,
是现代FBI狙击枪射程的三倍还多

and twice the range of the British muskets.
是英国滑膛枪射程的两倍

The tide of the war is about to change.
战争的局势即将扭转

Morgan's plan: First take out Burgoyne's Native American scouts.
摩根计划 首先干掉伯戈因的印第安侦察兵

400 have allied themselves with the British
为了守护自己世代繁衍的家园

to preserve their ancestral lands.
400名印第安人投靠了英军

But Morgan and his men
但是摩根和他的部下

now use traditional Native American tactics against them.
以彼之道 还施彼身 亦用印第安人的战术

They attack using speed, stealth, and surprise.
速战速决 神出鬼没 出其不意

After months of guerrilla warfare,
几个月的游击战下来

all the scouts are dead or desert behind enemy lines.
所有的侦察兵或被消灭 或被留在敌人后方

Any knowledge the redcoats had of the terrain goes with them.
英军对地形仅有的了解 也随之失去

The Rebels are rewriting the rules of war,
起义军重写了战争的规则

and they're about to do it again.
而且他们即将再次重写

1777.
1777年

The American War of Independence is in its second year.
美国独立战争打响后的第二年

New York and many parts of the colonies are in British hands.
纽约以及许多其他殖民地都被英军占领

The Rebels have been driven into the wilderness.
起义军被赶到了荒山野岭

But the fight back has begun.
不过绝地反击的时刻到来了

Patriot sharpshooters target a British Army
爱国的神枪手们将目标锁定在了

under General John Burgoyne.
约翰·伯戈因将军统帅的英军

They've already picked off Burgoyne's Native American guides.
他们已经解决了伯戈因的印第安向导

Now the two armies meet near Saratoga.
这次两军在萨拉托加附近交战

Here the Rebels break the rules of 18th-century warfare
起义军打破了18世纪的战争规则

and start targeting British officers.
专门瞄准英国军官

The plan: Leave the foot soldiers leaderless.
计划是 让步兵们群龙无首

Your officers tended to be your most educated guy.
军官一般是军队中学历最高的

They understood the communications line,
他们熟知供应线

they understood exactly what the orders were.
清楚上级的指令

They were the source of trying to get something done on a battle space.
他们是战场上取胜的关键

In Britain's 53rd regiment,
在英军的第53团中

all but one of its 11 officers are killed or wounded.
11名军官中除了1名 其余非死即伤

The tactic of assassinating officers appalls the British.
刺杀军官的战术使英军闻风丧胆

On the defensive,the British regroup under General Simon Fraser.
为了防御 西蒙·弗雷泽将军重新部署了英军

He brings fresh spirit to the beleaguered British Army.
被重重包围的英军气势为之一振

Daniel Morgan, commander of the sharpshooters, acts fast.
神枪手们的总指挥丹尼尔·摩根迅速采取行动

Shimmy on up that tree and take out the redcoat on his high horse.
爬到那棵树上 干掉那个骑马的

His best shooter is an illiterate frontiersman from Ireland,
他最出色的狙击手是个目不识丁的爱尔兰边民

Tim Murphy.
蒂姆·墨菲

This shot will turn the tide of the war.
这一枪将扭转战争局势

The first shot misses.
第一枪没中

This left.
左一点

The second skims his horse.
第二枪刚好擦过了他的马

Too high! Reload!
太高了 再来

Come on, take him out!
快点 干掉他

The third hits home.
第三枪正中要害

You could argue that whoever fired the bullet that took out Simon Fraser
你有理由认为不论是谁开枪干掉了西蒙·弗雷泽

did as much as any Founding Father to establish American independence.
他的贡献都不亚于美国独立的开国元勋

Without leadership, the British lose 1,000 men.
群龙无首 英军损失了1000人

Twice as many as the Patriots.
是爱国军的两倍

On October 17, 1777, General Burgoyne surrenders.
1777年10月17日 伯戈因将军投降

It's a turning point.
这是战争的转折点

The victory persuades Britain's greatest rival, France,
这场胜利说服了英国的劲敌 法国参战

to join the war on America's side.
支持美国独立

Now the French Navy will force the British to fight a war on two fronts,
如今法国海军迫使英军不得不两面迎战

land and sea.
陆地和海上

But first, Washington must face his greatest challenge as leader.
但华盛顿首先要应对作为领袖最大的挑战

He makes his winter camp in Pennsylvania at a place called Valley Forge.
他选在宾夕法尼亚佛吉谷驻扎过冬

In freezing temperatures, the Rebels build 900 huts in just 40 days.
义军冒着严寒用短短40天搭起了900个营帐

Each houses a dozen men.
每个住十二人

He has an army of 14,000 men and no houses,
他的军队有14000人 却只能风餐露宿

and the Continental Congress has failed to provide him with resources,
大陆会议没有钱提供物资援助

and by will power, by courage, by leadership,
无论是凭借意志力 勇气 领导力

by cajoling,
还是利诱

he has to hold the army together in the middle of a terrible winter.
他都必须防止军心涣散 安然度过这个寒冬

Joseph Plumb Martin, veteran of The Battle of New York,
约瑟夫·普拉姆·马丁 纽约之战的老兵

is at Valley Forge.
当时就在佛吉谷

It's a desolate place.
这个地方荒无人烟

We are now in a truly forlorn condition.
我们现在真的是弹尽粮绝了

No clothing, no provisions and as disheartened as can be.
没有衣服 没有食物 士气前所未有的低落

Our prospect is indeed dreary.
真是穷途末路

All right, soldier.
好吧 伙计

This is gonna hurt a bit, all right?
这可能会有点疼 没问题吧

You just grit your teeth.
咬紧牙关

Surgeon Albigence Waldo
军医阿尔比·瓦尔多

watches Washington's army head toward crisis.
眼看着华盛顿的军队陷入困境

The army, which has been surprisingly healthy,
一度健康得不可思议的军队

now begins to grow sickly from the fatigues
如今却要被疲倦拖垮了

they have suffered from this campaign.
在这次战争中他们饱受折磨

If we don't keep this clean, you're gonna be right back in here.
要是不保持伤口清洁 你还是得回到我这儿

1/5 of the soldiers have no shoes.
五分之一的士兵都没有鞋穿

With little clean water, dysentery spreads through the camp.
由于缺少清洁的水源 痢疾开始在营地传播

Within weeks, 2,000 men are sick
不出几周 已经有2000名士兵倒下

and they run out of meat.
而且肉也吃完了

Down to their last 25 barrels of flour,
面粉也只剩25桶

the men survive on "fire cake" a mixture of flour and water.
士兵们靠"煮面糊"为生 将面粉和水混在一起

The Rebel Army is a melting pot.
起义军是个大熔炉

As many as 60% of recruits are convicts, freed slaves and immigrants.
新兵中有60%是罪犯 被解放的奴隶和移民

But Washington's leadership
但华盛顿的领袖风范

inspires unruly men to stay in line.
却鼓舞着这群乌合之众团结一致

What he had was a confidence
他抱有一个信念

that if you want freedom, this is what it's gonna take.
要是想获得自由 这就是代价

It's gonna take sacrifice, it's gonna take blood.
就是得要抛头颅 洒热血

It's gonna take cold winters at Valley Forge.
就是得在佛吉谷挨过严冬

It's gonna take losses.
就是得作出牺牲

General Washington, he was a great general,
华盛顿将军是名伟大的将领

to be able to up lift his army during Valley Forge during that winter
在佛吉谷那样的寒冬仍然可以稳定军心

and still be able to fight.
还能继续战斗

I wish I would have been there, I wish I could have fought for him
我多希望当时能在那为他效命

because I damn sure would have.
确信不疑

But Washington's army soon faces an enemy far more lethal than the British.
但华盛顿的军队将要面对比英军更致命的敌人

Smallpox.
天花

The revolution breaks out during the worst smallpox epidemic in US history.
革命爆发于美国史上天花最为流行的时期

The deadly airborne virus spreads through the British prison ships.
这种依靠空气传播的致命病毒通过英国囚船扩散

Isolated from the disease for generations,
远离这种疾病好几代之后

the American colonists have little resistance to it
美国移民们对它几乎没有抵抗力

and there's no cure.
而且它无药可医

Victims break out in blisters and sores.
患者身上出现水泡和疱疹

The virus spreads through the blood,
病毒通过血液扩散

invading healthy cells, which it kills,
侵入健康细胞 将它们杀死

producing more of the virus in the process.
同时产生出更多的病毒

Four in ten victims die.
四成患者不治身亡

once smallpox arrives at Valley Forge,
天花刚一出现在佛吉谷

it spreads through the cramped huts like wildfire.
就迅速在拥挤的营帐中传播开来

Washington survived smallpox as a child.
华盛顿小时候得过天花

Now he decides to take a gamble...
这次他决定冒险一搏

with one of the most daring experiments in US military history.
做一个美军历史上最大胆的试验

Surgeons have learned about inoculation from African slaves.
军医从非洲奴隶那里学到了接种的技术

They harvest pus from a smallpox victim...
他们从天花病人身上采集脓液

and smear the live virus into cuts on the skin of a healthy patient.
然后把活病毒抹在健康人伤口上

The inoculation spreads the infection, but at a slower rate.
接种使得感染扩散 但扩散速度慢一些

A week after exposure, the victim's white blood cells create antibodies.
感染一周后 患者的白细胞会分泌出抗体

These attack and kill the virus that causes smallpox
它们会在病情蔓延之前

before the disease can spread.
攻击并且消灭天花病毒

But it's a dangerous race against time.
但这是一场与时间的赛跑 生死攸关

To survive,
要想生存

the patient's immune system has to work faster than the virus,
病人的免疫系统的反应必须快于病毒的扩散

or it will run out of control.
否则病情会一发不可收拾

One in 50 of those inoculated will die.
受接种的人 五十个中会有一个丧命于此

But Washington's gamble pays off.
但华盛顿赌赢了

New cases of smallpox fall from several thousand to just a few dozen.
天花的新病例从几千人降到了几十人

But to win the war against the British,
但要击败英国人

Washington turns to an unlikely hero
华盛顿还要完成一个壮举

who will transform his ragtag militia
把手下这群乌合之众

into a formidable fighting machine.
训练成强大的战争机器

1778.
1778年

George Washington's Patriot Army
华盛顿的爱国大军在佛吉谷

survives a hard winter and an outbreak of smallpox at Valley Forge.
相继经受了严冬和天花的考验

Now Washington introduces a new recruit
接下来 华盛顿新招募的一名军官

who will change the course of the war.
将扭转战局

Baron von Steuben is an ex-Prussian Army officer,
拜伦·冯·施托伊本是名前普鲁士军官

an elite soldier
同时也是名杰出的士兵

whose career is said to have been ruined by his homosexuality.
但据说其因同性恋者身份而前途尽失

But Washington makes him one of the most powerful men in his command.
华盛顿不拘一格 将他提拔为手下的一员大将

Washington was a genius in taking people in
华盛顿深谙用人之道

who didn't seem like they could achieve great things,
那些看似平庸的人

but under him,
在他领导下

they rose to the challenge, they rose to the occasion.
却能成为临危受命的贤才良将

And that's what great leaders do.
伟大的领袖往往如此

Von Steuben's task: Reinvent the demoralized Patriot Army
冯·施托伊本的任务是 重振低落的士气

so they can take on the British in a close fight.
使他们能够与英军近距离作战

Our arms are in horrible condition, covered with rust.
我们的武器装备状态极差 锈迹斑斑

Our men are literally naked,
战士们衣不蔽体

some to the fullest extent of the word.
有些甚至无衣可穿

Von Steuben starts by drilling discipline into Washington's ragtag recruits.
冯·施托伊本从整肃这些市井杂兵的军纪入手

The men are unlike any he has ever trained before.
这些兵员与他以往所训部队迥然不同

The genius of this nation is not in the least
这个国家的精英

to be compared with that of the Prussians or Austrians or French.
与普奥法等国 完全不可同日而语

You say to your soldier, "Do this," And he does it.
一般练兵时你说这样做 他们就会照做

But here, I am obliged to say,
但在这里 我得说

"This is the reason why you ought to do that," And then he does it.
因为这样所以你得照做 他们才会做

Von Steuben brings order, discipline and hygiene to Valley Forge.
冯·施托伊本把秩序纪律和卫生带到了佛吉谷

He moves latrines away from living quarters,
他把厕所从营房中移走

rebuilds the kitchens on the opposite side of the camp,
在营地的另一边重建厨房

and organizes housing according to regiments and companies.
然后根据团和连的编制组织营房

His biggest contribution,
他最大的贡献在于

he writes a manual on military training,
撰写了一本训练手册

with methods that are still in use today.
其中的一些方法沿用至今

Faster!
快点

Von Steuben's drills
冯·施托伊本通过训练

European battle tactics into an elite corps of 100 men.
让100精兵掌握了欧式作战技巧

Up, soldier!
起来 小子

Move!
快点

Each will train 100 more.
他们每人还会再训100名士兵

He also teaches them a new and deadly weapon...
他还教会了他们使用一种新式致命武器

the bayonet.
刺刀

Bayonet fighting will prove pivotal in the battles ahead.
在接下来的战斗中刺刀将起到关键作用

Bayonets allow rifles to double as spears,
刺刀让来福枪兼具长矛的功能

making close hand-to-hand combat possible without reloading.
从而可以不用重新上膛 就进行近距离搏击

But it's not just new weapons and skills
但冯·施托伊本带给爱国将士们的

Von Steuben gives the Patriots,
并不仅仅是新武器和技能

it's a new attitude.
更重要的是新的态度

You know, we can talk about weapons
我们可以对武器

and how certain weapons change the face of warfare,
和武器如何改变战事的话题作长篇大论的讨论

which is absolutely true,
它们确实至关重要

but the greatest weapon that you can ever have is right up here.
但最强大的武器往往在这里

Men like Plumb Martin leave Valley Forge
像普拉姆·马丁一样 每位离开佛吉谷的战士

highly skilled killers.
都成了武艺高强的杀手

While they retrain,
正当他们重整军纪之时

another secret war has been raging in British-occupied New York.
另一场战争在英军占领的纽约悄悄进行着

Here, a network of spies
这里 一个有组织的间谍网

has been busy passing information to the Rebels.
正忙于向起义军传递情报

Their leader is George Washington himself.
他们的领袖正是乔治·华盛顿本人

A man who's come down to us in history
在历史叙事中

as someone who is incapable of telling a lie,
他给我们的印象是不善谎言

succeeds as a commander in no small measure
可他居然曾经凭借诈敌本领

because of his capacity for deception.
当过一名极其成功的情报头子

A British general will later claim
一位英军将军后来宣称

that Washington did not outfight his enemies, but out-spy them.
华盛顿并非胜于军事实力而是情报能力

Now his French allies come under deadly threat,
当时法国盟军正受到致命威胁

and only his secret army of spies can save them from disaster.
只有他的秘密间谍组织能够救他们于水火

In New York,
在纽约

an estimated 20% of the population is still loyal to the British.
据估计仍有20%的人口效忠英国

Food costs are up 8%.
食品价格上涨了8个百分点

One young woman in five is a prostitute.
每五名年轻妇女中就有一名妓女

To the British,
在英国人眼里

New York merchant Robert Townsend is a loyalist.
纽约商人罗伯特·汤森是效忠英王者

A member of the loyalist militia,
他是效忠军的成员

he writes for the loyalist press.
还为效忠者出版社撰稿

But to Washington's spy network,
但在华盛顿的间谍网中

his code name is "Culper Jr.,"
他的代号是小考伯

a fact that was only discovered in 1939.
这一事实直到1939年才被公诸于世

Culper's gang will change the course of the war.
考伯的团队将会改变战局走势

By July 1781,
1781年7月

New York is buzzing with rumor.
一则传言在纽约闹得沸沸扬扬

A French fleet has been sighted off Rhode Island.
有人在罗德岛海域见到了法国舰队的踪迹

News leaks out
有消息透露

that the British plan to send warships from New York for a surprise attack.
英军计划从纽约派遣舰队展开突袭

Culper must get word to washington
考伯必须将消息传给华盛顿

to somehow stop the British fleet.
以便设法阻止英国舰队

The spies use invisible ink.
间谍们使用的是隐形墨水

An advanced formula unknown to the British,
一种英国人一无所知的高级配方

the ink is made from gallic acid.
墨水由没食子酸制成

It can only be revealed by brushing the paper in liquid iron sulfate.
只有将纸蘸上硫酸亚铁溶液 才能看到字迹

The next link in the chain is Austin Roe,
情报网的下一环是奥斯汀·罗伊

a tavern owner from Long Island.
一位来自长岛的小酒馆主

His contact, Abraham Woodhull,
他的接头人亚伯拉罕·伍德哈尔

picks up the message and buries it at a secret drop.
获得情报后将它埋在了一个秘密交换地点

Another agent, Ann Smith Strong,
另一个间谍 安·史密斯·斯特朗

then uses her laundry as a secret code.
用她晾晒的衣服作为行动代号

It signals a sailor who picks up the message
通知一名水手领取情报

and takes it to Washington.
并转交给华盛顿

Washington moves troops towards New York,
华盛顿向纽约调遣部队

threatening the city,
以兵临城下之势

forcing the British fleet to stay put in New York Harbor.
迫使英军留守纽约港

The French fleet sails out of danger.
法国舰队安然驶出危险区

It will play a critical role in the next stage of the war.
它将在下一阶段的战事中扮演关键角色

Now, with a spy network and
现在 拥有一个间谍网络

a modern army backed by French naval power,
和一支有着法国海上力量支撑的现代陆军

Washington is ready for a final showdown.
华盛顿准备好了最后的摊牌

Come on!
来吧

October 1781.
1781年10月

Six years into a war the British thought
英国人原以为会持续六个月的战争

would last six months,
已进入了第6个年头

the American Revolution comes to a head at Yorktown, Virginia.
美国革命在弗吉尼亚约克镇进入了高潮

In trenches around the fortified city,
在有工事防御的约克镇外围战壕里

Plumb Martin, now a sergeant,
已升为士官的普拉姆·马丁

waits with 8,000 other Patriot soldiers for the signal to attack.
和其他8000名爱国将士一起等待进攻信号

Washington's army has reinvented itself...
华盛顿的军队已经今非昔比

with sharpshooters...
神枪手遍布

Left!
向左

with training, discipline and new weapons...
训练有素 纪律严明 配备新式武器

and with a spy network that has saved the French fleet,
情报网络拯救了法国舰队

giving the Rebels dominance at sea.
让起义军获得了海上控制权

What remains of the British Army is under siege in Yorktown.
英军的残余力量被围困在约克镇

Trapped in the city, the redcoats wait for reinforcements,
受困城中 英军等待支援

but back in Britain,
但在英国本土

the war is unpopular and costing far too much money.
这场战争本就不得人心 且已耗资巨大

This is a case of hanging on
当时战局僵持不下

in the face of the--the British actions long enough
面对英军 美军顽强坚持

to where the british literally would grow weary of this
最终拖得英军疲惫不堪

and realize that it was endless.
并意识到局面将一直持续下去

This is Washington's chance to end the war with one decisive blow.
华盛顿给予决胜一击的时机到了

He committed to this idea of being able to stand on your own.
他对独立自主的理念矢志不渝

See, America is a dream,
美国真的始于一个梦想

and the only way to go get that dream is
而实现这一梦想的唯一方式就是

to show up and bring your very best to that moment
在这样的时刻站出来并作出最大努力

and not stop until you bring that dream into existence.
不到梦想变为现实 绝不罢休

Plumb Martin will be one of the first over the top.
普拉姆·马丁将会是排头兵的一员

Godspeed.
好运 兄弟

How are you doing, my friend?
朋友 怎么样

Good, how are you?
很好 你呢

I better check it out.
我去看看

Behind Yorktown's defenses,
在约克镇的防线之后

9,000 battle-hardened British troops are waiting.
9000名久历沙场的英军士兵严阵以待

They're protected by a series of outlying cannon forts called redoubts.
并由外围一排叫做多面堡的大炮堡垒保护着

By October 14th, just two remain.
到10月14日 英军仅余两座多面堡

If they're captured and their guns turned on Yorktown,
如果占领它们 并将炮火指向约克镇

the British will be forced to surrender.
英军将被迫投降

How's it look up there?
上面的情况怎么样

It's time.
是时候了

All the batteries in our line lay silent.
我们阵线的炮兵都静静等待

We lay anxiously waiting for the signal..
我们都急切地等待信号出现

Patriots race 100 yards to the British lines
爱国将士迎着英军枪炮和手榴弹的火力阻击

under fire and a hail of hand grenades.
冲向100码开外的英军阵线

Come on!
快上

Come on!
冲啊

A force of 400 break through and storm the British fort.
400人小分队冲破英军阻击占领了要塞

Fighting in close combat with bayonets, they beat the redcoats back.
使用刺刀进行近距离交战 他们成功击退了英军

Immediately after the fighting had ceased,
战斗一停止

I went out to see what had become of my wounded friend.
我立马出去查看受伤战友的情况

He was dead.
他已经死了

34 of Martin's comrades lie dead or wounded...
马丁的34位战友躺在地上或死或伤

but they've breached Yorktown's defenses.
但他们成功攻破了约克镇的防线

Two days later, the British surrender and begin negotiations for peace.
两天后 英军投降 和平谈判开启

For the past six years, leadership...
过去的六年中 领导力

training, weapons and intelligence have been vital.
训练 武器和情报成为了关键因素

The Rebels have achieved the impossible.
起义军赢得了不可能的胜利

The United States
美利坚合众国

is the only country to win independence from the British in war.
是唯一用战争从英国手中赢得独立的国家

On April 30, 1789,
1789年4月30日

Washington is inaugurated first president of the United States of America
华盛顿在新宪法的授权下就任美利坚合众国

under the new constitution.
第一任总统

But liberty comes at a price.
但这自由来得代价高昂

Over 25,000 men have lost their lives in the battle for independence...
两万五千多人在争取独立的战争中牺牲了生命

but a new nation is born.
但新国家也因此诞生

We hold these truths to be self-evident,
我们认为下面这些真理是不言而喻的

that all men are created equal,
人人生而平等

that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights,
造物主赋予他们若干不可剥夺的权利

that among these are Life, Liberty...
包括生命权 自由权

and the pursuit of Happiness.
和追求幸福的权利

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